International Journal of Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing

E-ISSN: 1998-4464
Volume 10, 2016

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Main Page

Submit a paper | Submission terms | Paper format


Volume 10, 2016

Title of the Paper: Rapid Prototyping of DSP Code for PC-Based Multi-Function Oscilloscopes


Authors: Fabrizio Russo, Francesco Travain

Pages: 462-470

Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach to the implementation of digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms for personal computer (PC)-based multi-function oscilloscopes. These recently introduced devices are compact and low-cost measurement systems that typically combine a multi-channel data acquisition unit, an arbitrary waveform generator and a USB interface to the PC. Many measurement applications can be addressed with the development of specific software. The target of our approach is the user who has only a basic knowledge of computer programming and does not want to spend time on a long and expensive training with dedicated development environments. To address this issue, a novel software shell is proposed where user interface and basic functions (for signal acquisition, processing and display) are already built-in and specific DSP functions can be easily added. Application examples are reported to show the advantages of the proposed approach.

Title of the Paper: A Vision System for Multi-View Face Recognition


Authors: M. Y. Shams, A. S. Tolba, S. H. Sarhan

Pages: 455-461

Abstract: Multimodal biometric identification has been grown a great attention in the most interests in the security fields. In the real world there exist modern system devices that are able to detect, recognize, and classify the human identities with reliable and fast recognition rates. Unfortunately most of these systems rely on one modality, and the reliability for two or more modalities are further decreased. The variations of face images with respect to different poses are considered as one of the important challenges in face recognition systems. In this paper, we propose a multimodal biometric system that able to detect the human face images that are not only one view face image, but also multi-view face images. Each subject entered to the system adjusted their face at front of the three cameras, and then the features of the face images are extracted based on Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithm. We utilize Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and combined classifiers based on both Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), and Radial Basis Function (RBF) for classification purposes. The proposed system has been tested using SDUMLA-HMT, and CASIA datasets. Furthermore, we collected a database of multi-view face images by which we take the additive white Gaussian noise into considerations. The results indicated the reliability, robustness of the proposed system with different poses and variations including noise images.

Title of the Paper: Deeper Insight into Graph Theory Using Multimedia Applications


Authors: Eva Milkova, Andrea Sevcikova

Pages: 448-454

Abstract: The aim of subjects dealing with graph theory and combinatorial optimization is above all to develop and deepen students’ capacity for logical and algorithmic thinking. The ability to form images in mind is also supported within these subjects. Students learn how to describe various situations with the aid of graphs, solve the given problem expressed by the graph, and translate the solution back into the initial situation. Research concerning learning style preferences of our students indicates that most of them are visual learners. Hence it is efficient to enhance teaching and learning process using various multimedia applications. In this paper is introduced a program dealing with objects appropriate to the graph theory and combinatorial optimization course subject matter, and which is created on a script given by the teacher with regard to students’ needs.

Title of the Paper: Power Peaks Allocation Based on Averaging-Adaptive Wavelet Transform


Authors: Qadri J. Hamarsheh, Omar R. Daoud, Mohammed M. Ali, Ahlam A. Damati

Pages: 440-447

Abstract: A one of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing deficiency has been taken into consideration in this work. A proposition has been made to tackle the Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) problem. The proposed work will be based on a special averaging adaptive wavelet transformation (SAAWT) process. It will be compared with two main works that has been published previously; a neural network (NN)-based and a special averaging technique (SAT)-based. In the NN work, the learning process makes use of a previously published work that is based on three linear coding techniques. The proposed work (SAAWT) consists of three main stages; extracting the needed features, de-noising and the optimization criterion. SAAWT has an enhancement over the SAT that will take the noise clearance enhancement into its consideration. It uses 136880 different combinations of de-noising parameters that are experimentally computed to get the most efficient result with respect to the MSE, SNR and PSNR values. A MATLAB simulation-based of such works has been made in order to check the proposition performance. In this simulation, both of the BER and CCDF curves have been taken into consideration. Furthermore, the bandwidth and channel behaviors have been remain constant. Moreover, two kinds of data have been imposing to this simulation; a random data that is generated randomly by making use of the MATLAB features and a practical data that have been extracted from a funded project entitled by ECEM. From the previously published work the SAT shows promising results in reducing the PAPR effect reached up to 75% over the work in the literature and over the NN-based work. Under the cost of increasing complexity, SAAWT gives further reduction over the SAT reaches up to 6%. This drawback will be examined in the future work.

Title of the Paper: Identifying Damage on Cars through the Integrated Use of TLS/SfM with Thermographic Images


Authors: V. Barrile, G. M. Meduri, G. Bilotta

Pages: 433-439

Abstract: The laser scanner is a detection technique essential for the 3D modeling of objects and it is well known its capability to acquire large amounts of data relatively in short times with a high degree of precision. In recent years also it is becoming more common some software-based algorithms "Structure from Motion" (SfM) which allow the graphic rendering of 3D models from images obtained by ordinary digital cameras. The integration of the 3D model with images obtained with infrared cameras can provide an overview not only on the state of conservation, but also provide, in addition to the dimensional characterization, also abnormality information, dimensional and form, invisible to human eyes and to other techniques. In particular, this application with the integrated use of terrestrial laser scanning instrumentation and advanced infrared camera can test a possible use for cars, after packaging and transport, in order to detect any damage caused by transport. We also will conduct the first tests on a possible use of the SfM to replace laser scanner

Title of the Paper: High Accuracy Algorithm of Laser Ranging Based on Wavelet Threshold Denoising


Authors: Zhihui Dai, Wenbin Li, Jiangming Kan, Chaoyi Zhang

Pages: 426-432

Abstract: In the dynamic laser ranging process of wireless remote control forest fire vehicle measuring obstacle, the effective signals were usually affected by the obstruction, reflection and other conditions of environment in the transmission process, the fire engine can not acquire the echo signals. In order to solve this problem, a new method which based on wavelet transform was proposed to obtain the time interval accuracy of echo signal. The echo signal noise of dynamic pulse laser was processed. Aim at the advantages and disadvantages of tradition soft and hard threshold denoising method, a new threshold function was proposed, and a new design method of wavelet optimal decomposition level was constructed. Based on this method, the new threshold function was compared with the soft and hard threshold function under simulation experiment. Experiments show that accuracy of laser ranging system can achieve 0.1m, which satisfied the fire with electro-optical observation and aim system equal or less than 0.5m ranging accuracy requirement, achieved the purpose of noise reduction. The new threshold function had obvious improvement compared to the soft and hard threshold function, and it was a more flexible choice between them.

Title of the Paper: Comparison of Different Techniques for Generating DEM for Analysis of Hydraulic Risk Territories with LIDAR


Authors: V. Barrile, G. Bilotta, G. M. Meduri, A. Ricciardi

Pages: 420-425

Abstract: Aim of this paper is investigation of a possible use of the technique of LIDAR topographic survey for updating existing hydraulic models for the calculation of Hydraulic head for risk areas. Specifically, this study intends to assess the benefits to be gained from new methods of LIDAR detection comparing calculations and simulations of updated models with those obtained from existing models, highlighting the critical issues of the use made for hydraulic analysis. We also carried out a comparison on the accuracy obtainable from DEM generated with different methods of acquisition and processing.

Title of the Paper: Design and Implementation of Wireless Sensor Monitoring System for Temperature and Humidity Based on ZigBee


Authors: Xinxin Wang, Jianlin Zhao, Chaofan Zhang, Huogen Lu

Pages: 414-419

Abstract: The design is a set of WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) software and hardware system which can monitor the temperature and humidity of the environment in real time on the basis of studying the structural characteristics of WSN and the principle of ZigBee technology, combined with TI CC2530 chip and the ZigBee protocol stack Z-Stack. The system is composed of collection nodes, ZigBee coordinator and upper computer. Acquisition nodes and coordinator are as lower computer using IAR as the software integrated development environment. Using C# language to develop the monitoring software of the upper computer. The acquisition node is responsible for the collection order of the upper computer, which realizes the periodic collection of temperature and humidity and transmits the data to the coordinator through the ZigBee network. The coordinator is responsible for the establishment and maintenance of the ZigBee network, the receiving of the node information, and transmission of the upper computer commands to the acquisition node timely. The GUI interface is designed to realize the processing, storage, visualization and display of the node status. The coordinator and the upper computer use serial port communication using the Stop-Wait Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) to ensure the reliable communication. The system has been tested, the function runs normally, the performance is stable, and the system meets the design requirements.

Title of the Paper: Artificial Neural Networks Architectures for Stock Price Prediction: Comparisons and Applications


Authors: Luca Di Persio, Oleksandr Honchar

Pages: 403-413

Abstract: We present an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to predict stock market indices, particularly with respect to the forecast of their trend movements up or down. Exploiting different Neural Networks architectures, we provide numerical analysis of concrete financial time series. In particular, after a brief r´esum´e of the existing literature on the subject, we consider the Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP), the Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), and the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks techniques. We focus on the importance of choosing the correct input features, along with their preprocessing, for the specific learning algorithm one wants to use. Eventually, we consider the S&P500 historical time series, predicting trend on the basis of data from the past days, and proposing a novel approach based on combination of wavelets and CNN, which outperforms the basic neural networks ones. We show, that neural networks are able to predict financial time series movements even trained only on plain time series data and propose more ways to improve results.

Title of the Paper: Legendre Wavelet and Particle Swarm Optimization for Power Amplifier Linearization


Authors: Xiaoyang Zheng, Yong Fu, Zhengyuan Wei

Pages: 397-402

Abstract: This paper implements Legendre wavelet and particle swarm optimization (PSO) to linearize power amplifier (PA). The novel method proposed is very efficient and the pre-distorter (PD) shows stability and effectiveness. The reasons are mainly the Legendre wavelet base can offer piecewise lower order polynomial approximation at different level of resolution for the PA linearization, and the PSO is a powerful optimization tool based on stochastic searching technique. Furthermore, a quite significant improvement in linearity is achieved based on the measured data of the PA characteristics and out power spectrum has been compared.

Title of the Paper: Impact of MOSFET’s Structure Parameters on its Overall Performance Depending to the Mode Operation


Authors: Milaim Zabeli, Nebi Caka, Myzafere Limani, Qamil Kabashi

Pages: 390-396

Abstract: The goal of this paper is to determine the influence of the main electrical and physical parameters that characterize MOSFET (the NMOS transistor), which control the device behaviour that depends on the selected parameter values. Furthermore, the paper provides directives that need to be followed during the design phase of MOSFET, which shall enable the desirable performance of the device depending on operation conditions, by controlling the fabrication process technology. Designing the MOSFET with appropriate parameters enables the design of integrated digital circuits with the best possible performance, depending on the selected MOSFET logic and the operation conditions.

Title of the Paper: Comparison of Two Methods for Determination of Instantaneous State of Dynamical System with LCLC Circuit


Authors: Branislav Dobrucky

Pages: 384-389

Abstract: The paper deals with chosen analytical and numerical methods which make possible to estimate instantaneous state of dynamical system in any time instant. Analytical model of the LCTLC filer uses Laplace-Carson transformation with complex operator p. The method described in the paper using transient component separation makes it possible to use steady state- and transient components to generate of total time waveforms of chosen output state variables or other quantities. The steady state component is created using response of AC input voltage during the first one half-period. Worked-out simulation experiment results are compared to common numerical solution done in Matlab/Simulink environment using discrete type of dynamical model of the filter system which is modelled and analyzed by second method for determination of instantaneous state of discrete dynamical system Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and experimental verification are given in the paper.

Title of the Paper: Impact of Windowing on the Detection Probability of Weak Sine Waves Affected by Frequency Fluctuation


Authors: Diego Bellan

Pages: 377-383

Abstract: This work investigates the impact of windowing on the detection probability of weak sine waves buried in noise and characterized by a frequency uniformly distributed in a given frequency interval. Detection is performed in the frequency domain through the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The mean value of the sine wave frequency can be located in any position on the frequency axis, i.e., it is not required a frequency mean value corresponding to a DFT bin. The work extends previous results obtained under the simple worst-case assumption of a sine wave frequency located in the middle point between two adjacent DFT bins. An interesting application related to such extension is given by the detection of interharmonics in power systems. Analytical expressions for the detection probability as function of the noise level and the selected window are derived in closed form. Validation is performed through numerical simulation of the whole measurement process.

Title of the Paper: A Review of Image Processing Methods and Biometric Trends for Personal Authentication and Identification


Authors: Ryszard S. Choras

Pages: 367-376

Abstract: This paper is a survey on methods of image processing and recognition for human identification. Image processing system is defined and different types of features are extracted from a user. A biometric system is a pattern recognition system that recognizes a person based on a feature vector derived from a specific physiological or behavioral characteristic that the person possesses. Biometric system may be viewed as a pattern recognition system that extracts a set of discriminative features from the input biometric template. Since traditional biometric systems have many limitations a new approach in biometrics used different models of multimodal systems. In multimodal biometric system various levels of fusion the personal attributes information is performed. We discuss model of soft biometric features and methods and techniques for automated recognition based on those characteristics. We consider the current technical issues and challenges regarding the use of biometric system.

Title of the Paper: Multi-Antenna Single-Relay System Precoding Based on New Vector Quantization Method


Authors: Chaoyi Zhang, Ruirui Zhang, Yan Yao

Pages: 361-366

Abstract: In order to solve receiver node can not acquire a perfect channel state information (CSI) problem in existing relay system, this paper uses a limited feedback idea, receiver sends parts of CSI to transmitter, then based on the existing MIMO knowledge, source node imports a time-domain precoding matrix. With minimal loss of mutual information as system optimization objective, a new vector quantization (VQ) method is used to build a codebook, and together with average power distribution matrix to compose the precoding matrix. At last, the VQ conditions under low SNR and high SNR are analysed for more optimization. Simulation results show that, compare with tradition distributed precoding, the new VQ precoding can acquire higher capacity gain and have good system bit error rate performance.

Title of the Paper: A Digital Predistorter with Adaptive Architecture for High Efficient Envelope Tracking Power Amplifiers


Authors: Jiangnan Yuan, Chenwei Feng

Pages: 354-360

Abstract: Envelope tracking power amplifiers, though having high efficiency for non-constant envelope signals, also exhibit distinct “S” shape characteristics, which is very difficult to be compensated by employing traditional polynomial predistortion techniques. In order to deal with the problem, a universal digital predistorter of cascaded simplicial canonical piecewise linear function and memory polynomial model is proposed. The architecture of the proposed predistorter has “adaptive” capacity to varied power amplifiers. The complex separable least squares algorithm (CSLS) is presented for the parameters identification as well. Simulation demonstrated that the convergence speed and identification error of the CSLS algorithm are superior to those of least mean square type algorithms. The proposed predistorter model is effective on linearization of different types of envelope tracking power amplifiers, with an improvement of Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR) over 35dB.

Title of the Paper: Classifier Ensemble for Improving Land Cover Classification


Authors: Lamyaa Gamal El-Deen Taha

Pages: 346-353

Abstract: Ensemble data mining methods, also known as classifier combination, are often used to improve the performance of classification. In this study, several MCS (classifier ensemble) techniques have been used to classify the RapidEye image. The main aim is to increase land cover discrimination of different classes and minimizing misclassification errors. Firstly, rectification of RapidEye image was performed. Secondly the maximum likelihood ( MLC ), minimum distance (MD), Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network( ANN ) and spectral angler mapper (SAM) classifiers were carried out to classify the RapidEye image. Thirdly, the MCS techniques were applied using bagging and boosting (adaptive boosting (Adaboost)) algorithm of the combination of three classifiers (SVM, ANN and SAM) to integrate the classification results. The outcomes of the proposed method demonstrate that the overall accuracy as well as commission and omission errors have been improved compared to the best single classifier.

Title of the Paper: Complementary Code Keying Modulation and Frequency Domain Equalization for Single Carrier Underwater Acoustic Communications


Authors: Xialin Jiang, Wei Su, En Cheng

Pages: 339-345

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the single carrier modulation and detection schemes for medium range underwater acoustic communication with severe inter-symbol interference (ISI) and ocean ambient noise. Complementary code keying (CCK), a variation of M-ary bi-orthogonal keying, is used as the modulation scheme. The CCK modulation with good auto-correlation and cross-correlation properties provides a strong tolerance to ISI caused by multipath distortion and supports high data rate transmission. In addition, we propose the low complexity method of frequency domain equalization applied to single carrier system. Two types of channel estimation algorithms, least squares (LS) and matching pursuit (MP), are also implemented. We present performance analysis on bit error rate (BER) for different detection schemes. The ocean experiment results show that a reliable communication over 10 kilometers underwater transmission is achieved with a data rate at 4 kbit/s in 4 kHz of bandwidth.

Title of the Paper: Enhancing the Performance of OFDM Systems-Based PAPR Reduction


Authors: Omar R. Daoud, Qadri J. Hamarsheh, Ahlam A. Damati

Pages: 333-338

Abstract: In this work a comparison has been made among different proposed algorithms in order to improve the performance of a power consumption wireless network. They are used to combat one of the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technique drawbacks, which are considered as a key technique in enhancing the new era of wireless systems’ quality of service (QoS). Therefore, three different propositions have been investigated and covered by this work and classified as; linear coding based, wavelet transformation based, PWM based. Furthermore, a MATLAB program has been run to check their performance and covers two different criteria; the curves of CCDF and the SER curves. This is in order to reduce the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) effect.

Title of the Paper: Spherical Families of Polynomials: A Graphical Approach to Robust Stability Analysis


Authors: Radek Matušů

Pages: 326-332

Abstract: This paper is intended to present not so common and frequently used approach to the definition of uncertainty bounding set for systems with parametric uncertainty and related tools for robust stability analysis. More specifically, the work deals with spherical families of polynomials. The set of illustrative examples demonstrates an easy-to-use graphical method of robust stability testing based on the combination of the value set concept and the zero exclusion condition by means of the Polynomial Toolbox for Matlab.

Title of the Paper: Subspace Based Model Predictive Control for Linear Parameter Varying Systems


Authors: Xiaosuo Luo

Pages: 321-325

Abstract: A novel model predictive control method based on subspace identification for linear parameter varying (LPV) systems is presented. The LPV systems in innovations are introduced to derive the subspace prediction output with the subspace identification algorithm. The subspace prediction output is composed of the time-varying system matrices and the transition matrices. Next, the subspace prediction output is transformed to the appropriate one for the design of the controller. Through RQ factorization, the R matrix can be obtained from the above subspace prediction output. The subspace predictors are derived from R matrix using the orthogonal projection. Then, the subspace predictors are used to design the model predictive controller. The controller is to get the control sequence which can be obtained by minimizing the cost function and the control input is calculated from the control sequence. It’s shown that the integrated action is incorporated in the control effect to eliminate the steady error. The simulation example is a model of the out-of-plane dynamics of a flexible rotor blade of a fixed speed wind turbine and it can be represented as the LPV system state-space model. The simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of this method.

Title of the Paper: Overviews on Internal Resistance and its Detection of Microbial Fuel Cells


Authors: L. P. Fan, J. J. Li

Pages: 316-320

Abstract: Microbial fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. Internal resistance is an important factor which affects the fuel cell performance and is of great help to the fault diagnosis of the fuel cell. Monitoring the internal resistance of the microbial fuel cell effectively is not only the necessary condition for realizing the maximum power output, but also a key action to ensure the health and performance of the microbial fuel cell. The main measurement methods for determining the internal resistance of microbial fuel cell are summarized in this paper. Some usually used measurement methods such as polarization curve method, current interruption method, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, phase locked amplifier, are briefed and compared.

Title of the Paper: New Object Based Model for Automatic Building Extraction by Integrating LiDAR Point Clouds and LiDAR Derived Layers


Authors: Lamyaa Gamal El-Deen Taha, Rania Elsayed Ibrahim

Pages: 306-315

Abstract: Building information is needed for many applications such as updating cadastral databases, management of urban area, building inventory data for damage assessment after disaster and creation of 3D models, building data for solar energy estimation. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has become a valuable data source for urban data acquisition. A method was proposed in this research for building extraction based on object oriented classification with decision rules. A model has been developed using object oriented classification and is implemented using QGIS. Using Lastools, Envi 5.1 and QGIS 2.10, multiple images were derived from LiDAR data. A total of 30 feature attributes have been generated only 8 of the 30 possible attributes were used, resulted in a classification based on the total group of attributes (raw 3D point clouds data captured by laser scanning and LiDAR-derived features (Digital Surface Model and Digital Terrain Model, textures from Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) as well as the area of building? a threshold and building shape has been also used. Three classes were identified for the study area: Building, trees and power lines. The proposed method was evaluated using some buildings of used data set and the results proved high efficiency and reliability of the proposed method for extraction of buildings. The results show that the proposed method has very high classification accuracy. Particularly, the overall classification accuracy was 92%, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.93. Additionally, both producer accuracy and user accuracy were higher than 86% for buildings class. By counting the extracted buildings in the study area using the model, it was seen that 91% of buildings were extracted automatically. It was found that a good result could be achieved from the developed method.

Title of the Paper: Recognition of Amazigh Language Transcribed into Latin Based on Polygonal Approximation


Authors: K. El Gajoui, F. Ataa Allah, M. Oumsis

Pages: 297-305

Abstract: Optical Character Recognition systems aim to achieve a complete conversion of document image to fully searchable text file. These systems are composed of a set of modules. Different approaches have been developed for each module and each approach includes several techniques that have been suggested by different researchers. In this paper, we propose an OCR system for dealing with the Amazigh language, transcribed into Latin letters with diacritical marks. To this aim, we created an OCR corpus associated to this language, we used nonlinear binarization method in the preprocessing phase, and we adopted a structural approach based on polygonal approximation features for the classification phase.

Title of the Paper: GLCM Based No-Reference Perceptual Blur Metric for Underwater Blur Image


Authors: En Cheng, Xizhou Lin, Ye Chen, Fei Yuan, Weidi Yang

Pages: 291-296

Abstract: Due to the uncertainties of the ocean water environment, scattering and absorption effects of light, lack of light, and unstable imaging platform, the underwater images are usually distorted, especially been blurry. In this paper, we present a no-reference perceptual blur metric for underwater image. Due to the fact that human eye is sensitive to image edges and details, which is usually attenuated by blur. Firstly, we calculate the gradient image and then extract several features on the gray level co-occurrence matrix of gradient image to capture the image details. Then these features are sent to SVR to train and predict the objective assessment score. Experimental results show that the proposed metric outperforms other metrics both for the open datasets and real underwater blur images.

Title of the Paper: Real-Time Implementation of Different Controllers for a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum


Authors: Juan Villacrés, Michelle Viscaíno, Marco Herrera, Oscar Camacho

Pages: 281-290

Abstract: This paper presents experimental results of three control strategies to stabilize a two-wheeled inverted pendulum. The control techniques used are PID, Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR), and Sliding Mode Control. The comparison results of the three controllers are for angular wheel position tracking, for external disturbances, and parameter uncertainties in the model. Tests are quantified in terms of Integral Square Error – ISE. For the experiments, the robot was constructed with LEGO Mindstorms NXT 2.0.

Title of the Paper: Estimation of Harmonic Power Components Affected by Frequency Instability


Authors: Diego Bellan

Pages: 275-280

Abstract: This work deals with the statistical properties of digital real-time measurements of harmonic power components taking into account frequency instability and additive noise. Continuous monitoring of harmonic power components is an important issue as far as power quality of modern power systems is concerned. When the computational burden prevents the use of sophisticated algorithms to cope with the lack of synchronism between voltage/current waveforms and sampling, harmonic power estimate is based on the peak search in the frequency domain. In this paper, an approximate analytical approach is proposed to provide the statistical characterization of harmonic power measurements based on the peaks of voltage/current spectra. The bias and the standard deviation of harmonic power are derived as functions of the parameters of the windows used against spectral leakage, and as functions of the statistical properties of the frequency of voltage/current waveforms treated as a random variable with uniform or Gaussian distribution.

Title of the Paper: A Discrete Model of Jitter for Coarsely Quantized Waveforms


Authors: Diego Bellan

Pages: 269-274

Abstract: This work deals with the derivation and validation of a discrete model of timing jitter suited to coarsely quantized waveforms, i.e., for waveforms digitized by low-resolution high-speed analog-to-digital converters. In fact, in the paper it is shown that when a coarsely quantized waveform is considered, the classical continuous model for timing jitter is no longer valid since the discrete nature of the waveform must be taken into account. In particular, it is shown that the classical continuous model leads to significant underestimation of the variance of frequency-domain waveform parameters when repeated measurements are performed. Analytical derivations related to the statistical properties of Fourier coefficients of a jittered waveform are validated through numerical simulations.

Title of the Paper: Exact Time Response Computation of Control Systems with Fractional Order Lag and Lead Compensators


Authors: Nusret Tan, Derek P. Atherton, Ali Yuce, Furkan Nur Deniz

Pages: 260-268

Abstract: In this paper, two exact methods are developed for the computation of unit step and unit impulse responses of closed loop control systems with fractional order lag and lead compensators. The methods are based on using the frequency response data of the closed loop fractional order control system. It is shown that the unit step and unit impulse responses of a feedback control system including a fractional order lag or lead controller can be computed exactly using Fourier series of a square wave and inverse Fourier transform of frequency response information namely gain and phase values. Time response equations which are the function of controller parameters are derived. A design procedure is given for estimating the parameters of a fractional order lag or lead compensator which give specified performance values of the closed loop system. Numerical examples are provided to show the success of the presented method.

Title of the Paper: Detection Probability of Harmonics in Power Systems Affected by Frequency Fluctuation


Authors: Diego Bellan

Pages: 254-259

Abstract: This paper deals with the analytical derivation of detection probability of power system harmonics affected by frequency instability. Indeed, when the number of data samples is small in order to limit the computational burden (e.g., in continuous real-time monitoring of voltage/current spectra for power quality purposes), contribution of additive noise reduces significantly the detection probability of harmonics in the discrete Fourier transform domain. If the waveform is affected by frequency instability (emphasized for higher order harmonics), the lack of synchronism between harmonics and sampling frequencies results in a further reduction of detection probability due to the attenuation effect introduced by the window used against spectral leakage. The analytical model derived in the paper takes into account both additive noise and frequency instability to the aim of evaluating detection probability of harmonics. Analytical results are validated by means of numerical simulations.

Title of the Paper: Study of the Accuracy of the Color Peak Signal-to-Blur Ratio (CPSBR)


Authors: Fabrizio Russo

Pages: 242-253

Abstract: The most critical issue in the restoration of color pictures from noise is the preservation of the useful information embedded in the image data. The Color Peak Signal-to-Blur Ratio (CPSBR) is a new full-reference method that measures the color/detail preservation yielded by a color image denoising filter. The approach is based on a simple and effective algorithm for the estimation of the filtering blur that operates in the RGB color space. An extensive study of the accuracy of the CPSBR is provided in this paper focusing on two key paradigms for image denoising: the family of order-statistics smoothers and the class of nonlinear weighted average filters. In this framework, the exact values of color distortion and detail blur produced by weighted vector medians, scalar and vector bilateral filters are theoretically evaluated and used for a comparison in order to validate the method. Results of many computer simulations dealing with color images corrupted by different amounts of Gaussian and impulse noise show that the novel CPSBR is a very accurate measure of color/detail preservation.

Title of the Paper: A 10 Bits Three Channels 0.35 um SiGe Phase Shifter


Authors: G. Coviello, G. Avitabile, G. Piccinni, N. Margiotta

Pages: 232-241

Abstract: The paper describes an active module for phase control in Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) realized in 0.35 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology provided by the AustriaMicroSystem. The system is composed by a digital Phase Control Block (PCB) which generates the three channel square waves with a minimum phase shift of 0.3515° and an output frequency of 1.953MHz, and the PLLs with external VCOs. The system clock is equal to 2GHz. As expected from the simulations, the maximum phase error is less than 0.1° and the rms phase error is less than 0.06°. The complete system has been tested at 2.45 GHz and 3.8 GHz with almost the same maximum phase error and rms from the theory confirming the validity of the architecture.

Title of the Paper: Real-Time Reactive Power Compensation of Induction Motor Loads Using Distribution-Level Static Synchronous Compensator


Authors: Wei-Neng Chang, Ching-Huan Liao

Pages: 225-231

Abstract: Real-time and continuous compensations of reactive power for induction motor loads in an industrial power system are very important, which not only can keep load bus voltage at a rated operation voltage, but also minimize the needed current for operations of induction motors. In the paper, a 7-level cascade full h-bridge converter based distribution-level static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) is developed for the real-time reactive power compensation and stability enhancement of induction motor loads in industrial power systems. First, the main circuit configuration and operation principle of the DSTATCOM are briefed. Then, a real-time reactive power compensation scheme is proposed for the DSTATCOM to continuously supply reactive power for the induction motor loads during transient starting and steady-state operation. Computer simulation is performed for preliminary verification. Finally, a DSTATCOM hardware prototype is built by using multi-DSP-based controller. Experimental results verify that the DSTATCOM can offer the real-time reactive power demand of the induction motor during free acceleration. The load bus voltage can also be stabilized to keep a good voltage regulation.

Title of the Paper: Eigenvalue Intervals for Infinite-Point Fractional Boundary Value Problem and Application in Systems Theory


Authors: Baiyan Xu, Yitao Yang

Pages: 215-224

Abstract: In this paper, we solve an important problem in Systems Theory: We obtain the eigenvalue intervals of the infinite-point fractional boundary value problem. Fractional Eivenvalue Problems are important in Decentralized Systems, Decentralized Control, Robotics, Distributed Systems, Electromagnetic Fields, Eleasticity Theory, 1-D and 2-D Systems etc. We prove its existence of at least one or two positive solutions for the fractional equations arising in control. The results can describe the corresponding control system accurately.

Title of the Paper: Students-Orientation Software-Based Method for Learning Multi-Robot Collaborative Operations


Authors: Hsin-Hsiung Huang, Juing-Huei Su, Chyi-Shyong Lee

Pages: 208-214

Abstract: This study defines a novel and interesting problem for the students of LungHwa University of Science and Technology to learn multi-robot collaborative operations. Besides, the training materials, which contain a series of exercises to learn and simulate that two cars move along their own line tracks. The proposed study mainly focuses on the three topics. First, the lecture teaches with the ordering of the primary-level, middle-level and advance-level exercises, because this collision problem is very strange to the students of University of Science and Technology. Second, the easy-to-use one-dimension array is provided to design the collaborative operations for two line following robots instead of the complex data structures or theory. Third, both of the stop-then-start method and go-backward method are designed to handle the car collision or the future extensions. In fact, the car with low-priority must wait for the car with high-priority. In order to observe the collaborative operation step-by-step, the programming simulator is easily adjusted the delay time. After the training course, the questionnaires from students are positive that most students can learn materials and programming skills.

Title of the Paper: Microcontroller Implementation of Mixed-Integer Predictive Control


Authors: J. Novak, P. Chalupa

Pages: 200-207

Abstract: The development of efficient methods and also technological advances permit the implementation of predictive control on embedded systems with limited computational power and memory capacity. However, predictive control with a finite number of admissible input values still remains restricted to powerful computational platforms as problem becomes NP-hard. Given the growing computational power of embedded controllers the topic becomes more and more attractive. In the paper the solver based on a standard branch-and-bound method and interior point method is implemented the target system with low power and limited RAM memory. The performance is evaluated in two simple simulation experiments. In the first simulation experiments the goal is to control the level in a MIMO water tank with binary, integer and continuous input signals. The second experiment evaluates the predictive control based on the hybrid model of the two-tank system.

Title of the Paper: Different Constructions of Step Down Voltage Converters in Terms of EMC


Authors: Martin Pospisilik, Milan Adamek, Rui Miguel Soares Silva

Pages: 190-199

Abstract: At present, the designers of voltage converters can choose from a wide variety of custom integrated drivers operating at different principles. The authors of this paper aim to show that although the two different designs of a step-down voltage converters can achieve comparable nominal values, at least from the view of the user, due to the differences in the basic principles applied in their drivers they may exhibit different behaviour in the area of the electromagnetic compatibility. This can lead to considerable problems in design of more complex circuits these voltage converters are a part of. For the purposes of the hereby presented results, two different constructions of step-down converters have been chosen. The first one is based on a low-cost and randomly operating solution based on the driver MC 34063 while the second one employs more advanced driver marketed under the label AP 1501. Both converters were constructed and tested for the purposes of application in a power backup device for Power over the Ethernet. The nominal input voltage of both converters is 24 V while their nominal output voltage is 12 V, as used in common applications. Both converters were tested in the EMC laboratory of Tomas Bata University Zlin in order to obtain not only the static parameters, but also the information on how they can interfere with other electronic devices. Within this paper, the most interesting findings are published.

Title of the Paper: New Tools for Classification and Evaluation of Filtering Errors in Color Image Denoising


Authors: Fabrizio Russo

Pages: 178-189

Abstract: Performance analysis of color image denoising filters requires accurate measurements of many different effects produced during noise removal. Metrics in the literature consider only a subset of the filtering features that should be taken into account to address this issue. The novel set of metrics described in this paper aims at providing the necessary tools for analyzing the quality of a filtered picture from the point of view of residual noise, detail blur and color distortion. The approach adopts the YCbCr color space and performs the decomposition of the mean squared error (MSE) into six different components. Each MSE component focuses on a different class of filtering errors affecting the luminance or chroma channels of the filtered image. In order to validate the approach, the exact values of the MSE components are theoretically evaluated for some important nonlinear filters and used for a comparison. Computer simulations dealing with color pictures corrupted by Gaussian and impulse noise show that the results are in very good agreement with the theoretical values and that the method can represent a useful resource for analyzing the behavior of a denoising algorithm.

Title of the Paper: Design and Verification of a Robust Controller for the Twin Rotor MIMO System


Authors: Petr Chalupa, Jakub Novák, Jan Přikryl

Pages: 171-177

Abstract: The paper deals with control design and verification of a robust controller of the Twin Rotor MIMO System – a real-time laboratory plant by Feedback Ltd. The plant physical appearance as well as its behavior resembles a helicopter. It consists of two propellers individually controlled by external controller. An initial nonlinear mathematical model is derived using first principles modeling and further used for simulation verification of the designed controllers. Besides, several linear black box models are identified by applying various input courses to the plant. Resulting set of models is used for robust control design. The designed robust controllers with promising behavior in simulations are verified by real-time control of the laboratory model.

Title of the Paper: Filtering Properties of Periodically Grounded Multiconductor Power Lines


Authors: Dario Assante

Pages: 165-170

Abstract: This paper deals the effect of the periodical grounding of the shield wire in multiconductor power lines. The grounding of the shield wire is usually realized in order to prevent direct lightning of the power wire or the mitigate the induced overvoltages. However, this operation introduces a filtering property in the frequency behavior of the transmission line, which can be clearly observed in the characteristic impedance. It is worth to observe that, even if the grounding is performed just on the shield wire, the filtering property can be observed also on the phase wires. The paper also shows a methodology to deal with problems mixing concentrated and distributed parameters equations.

Title of the Paper: Automated Drill Core Scanning


Authors: Dolgy K., Belashev B., Gorkovets V.

Pages: 150-154

Abstract: A software-hardware complex for scans of core samples, extracted from drill holes in the course of drilling, is described. A scan contains visual information about the lateral surface of a sample, decreases the risks of losing, mixing and decomposing of samples and is a convenient form of their storing, copying and mailing. The structure and design characteristics of the complex, algorithms of complex control, scanning, 3D-models, the evaluation of mineral composition of core rocks, the compression and storing of scans are described. The scan storage base copies a traditional core storage system and adds it information about the time of scanning and the evaluation of mineral composition of the core rocks. The results of the tests of the work of complex are shown using a core sample from the Kostomuksha iron deposit.

Title of the Paper: The Novel Co-Evolutionary Quantum Evolution Algorithm and its Applications


Authors: Liang Zhou, Yu Sun, Ming Shao

Pages: 142-149

Abstract: To fully explore the potential features of traditional Quantum-inspired Evolution Algorithms (QEA) in optimizing design problems, this paper proposed a novel quantum-inspired evolution algorithm with co-evolutionary mechanism (NCQEA). In the proposed new structure, the quantum state population is firstly divided into multiple sub-populations which can complete the evolution process independently. In the course of evolution, every sub-population will produce an elitist individual; then these elitist individuals from every sub-population are selected to construct an elite library and the individual in this elite library can be used to help the poor sub-population to find the global optimal solution or near-optimal solution. In addition, this algorithm is also to define a new diversity indicator for every sub-population which can be used to measure its corresponding population diversity on the basis of characteristic information of every sub-population. As for the sub-population with poor diversity, the mutation strategies are implemented in order to give the algorithm the power to explore its search space. Finally, simulation experiments are performed on global numerical optimization functions and Knapsack problems, and the results indicate that the new co-evolutionary algorithm develops better performance than the traditional QEA.

Title of the Paper: Mutivariable Control of a Metrology Laboratory: Humidity and Temperature Regulation


Authors: Jorge M. Jaimes-Ponce, Jesús U. Liceaga-Castro, I. I. Siller-Alcalá, Roberto A. Alcántara-Ramírez

Pages: 134-141

Abstract: In this paper the design and implementation of control system for a metrology laboratory is presented. The variables to be controlled are the temperature and humidity inside the laboratory. The control system was designed bearing in mind that it must render a low cost solution, simple to design and manufacture and not also easy to operate but to repair and maintain. The control system must comply with the requirements of a metrology laboratory dedicated to the calibration and certification of industrial scales. The control system was designed using standard industrial components for both hardware and software. In this sense, the control system is based on the microcontroller PIC16F877A, the humidity and temperature sensor HMW61/71 and the well-known classical PID controllers. The PID controllers result in a decentralized multivariable controller based on the multivariable control system framework known as Individual Channel Design (ICD).

Title of the Paper: An Improved ACO Algorithm for the Analog Circuits Design Optimization


Authors: Bachir Benhala

Pages: 128-133

Abstract: Sizing analog circuits is a complicated and delicate process activity and time consum¬ing task in the entire design, generally based on the experi¬ence of the designer. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) had been recently proposed and successfully applied for finding the optimal performance of analog circuits and hence the transistors sizes for the integrated circuit design. However, this algorithm needs an intensive execution time to converge toward optimal solutions. To improve the speed and even the efficiency of the algorithm, the concept of backtracking search is combined with the ACO algorithm. The performances of the improved ACO algorithm, named BA-ACO, are highlighted through the optimal design of a two stage Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) and an Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA). SPICE simulation results are given to show the validity of the proposed algorithm.

Title of the Paper: A Time-Domain Method for Correction of Instability in Sensors Based on Field Effect Transistors (FETs)


Authors: Shahriar Jamasb

Pages: 119-127

Abstract: A time-domain method for correction of threshold voltage instability, commonly known as drift, in FET-based sensors is presented. The instability of the dc operating point in this class of sensors is characterized by a relatively slow, monotonic temporal drift in the threshold voltage of the FET in the absence of variations in the measurand of interest. The proposed method is equivalent to correction of drift by constructing a corrected sensor response via integrating the differential of the measuring signal arising solely from changes in the measurand. This method allows accurate continuous monitoring of the measurand in presence of drift if the drift rate is sufficiently smaller than the product of sensor sensitivity and the rate of change of the measurand. The validity of the proposed method is experimentally confirmed under in vitro conditions approximating rapid changes in physiological pH such as those encountered clinically in acute metabolic acidosis or cardiopulmonary bypass operation. Finally, the relevance of the distinction between drift and flicker (1/f) noise to the proposed method is discussed.

Title of the Paper: Robust Speaker Identification System Over AWGN Channel Using Improved Features Extraction and Efficient SAD Algorithm with Prior SNR Estimation


Authors: Riadh Ajgou, Salim Sbaa, Said Ghendir, Ali Chemsa, A. Taleb-Ahmed

Pages: 108-118

Abstract: This paper motivates the combination of Autoregressive (AR) parameters and Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) features for remote robust text-independent speaker identification. All speaker identification techniques start by converting the raw speech signal into a sequence of acoustic feature vectors carrying distinct information about the signal. The most commonly used acoustic vectors are Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) which is a very useful feature for speaker identification system but it deteriorates in the presence of noise, thus to have better identification rate, we have developed a robust feature extraction method based on the combination of MFCC and Autoregressive model (AR) parameters modeled with GMM model. To improve the identification rate accuracy, an efficient speech activity detection (SAD) algorithm based on prior SNR estimation are proposed in the pre-processing phase. To validate our work TIMIT database with speech from 630 speakers has been used. The first four utterances for each speaker could be defined as the training set while 1 utterance as the test set. The use of AR-MFCC approach has showed significant improvements in identification rate accuracy when compared with MFCC. However, in terms of runtime, AR-MFCC requires more time to execute than MFCC. Our SAD algorithm has provided a suitable contour of speech activity in noisy conditions.

Title of the Paper: Control of Natural Management on Marine Coasts by Simulation Modeling


Authors: Igor S. Maiorov, Sergey Y. Golikov, Evgeniya A. Tikhomirova

Pages: 101-107

Abstract: Control of natural management is a complex process where major things depend on adoption of a correct administrative decision. Subjectivity in certain regional development strategy may be eliminated by informational simulation models. The study represents the calculations of the relative tax value allowing natural management with unexhausted resources in the coastal zones and stable social and economic development of the coastal areas. All calculations are made by “CoMPAS” imitative software allowing calculations of a number of indices characterizing level and quality of life of the population within the coastal areas. This software allows simulating effects after investments into the extracting and recycling branches of economy, the recreational-and-tourist system, and nature protection measures as well. Specificity of marine coasts causes its own corrective amendments in the calculations of strategies. We consider specificity of choice among strategies of development in the contact zone of global level, such as marine coasts in the Far East of Russia.

Title of the Paper: Comparison of Two Approaches to Cascade Control of a CSTR


Authors: Petr Dostal, Vladimir Bobal, Jiri Vojtesek

Pages: 95-100

Abstract: The paper deals with comparison of two approaches to cascade control of a continuous stirred tank chemical reactor. The control is performed in primary and secondary control-loops where the primary controlled output of the reactor is a concentration of the main reaction product. The secondary output is the reactant temperature. A common control input is the coolant flow rate. In the first case, the controller in the primary control-loop is a linear Pcontroller, and, in the second case a nonlinear P-controller. In both cases, the controller in the secondary control-loop is an adaptive controller. The results obtained on basis of both proposed approaches are verified by control simulations.

Title of the Paper: Features of Tuning Strategy for Field Oriented Control of PMSM Position Drive System with Two-Mass Load


Authors: Dmitry V. Lukichev, Galina L. Demidova

Pages: 88-94

Abstract: This paper presents technique to tune the controllers for Field Oriented Control (FOC) of position servo drive system. Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is used as a motor for this tracking system. Two algorithms of vector control (VC) are considered: Field Oriented Control (FOC) based on current model of motor and FOC based on voltage model of motor. Each algorithm determines the type of inverter and the structure of control scheme. In common motor and plant in this position tracking system are represented as two-mass load. Considered methods of tuning the controllers employ a simplified model of the motor and plant. Comparison of these FOC-algorithms is given in paper. A computer simulation shows the validity of the proposed algorithms.

Title of the Paper: Using Ultrasonic Sensors to Create 3D Navigation Model of Area with Ultrasonic Sensors


Authors: M. Popelka, J. Struska, M. Struska

Pages: 82-87

Abstract: In this paper, 3D model of area using ultrasonic signal was created. In order to achieve this goal they were presented two techniques. Both techniques are based on analytical knowledge to sort data and get required information to create 3d model of the area. The 3D model is created in software MATLAB and also served to gain basic information about resolution of objects and others obstacles, which could cause restriction in movement of wheeled robot. Thus obtained data will be used to control motion of wheeled robotic platform in indoor environments such as warehouses. This 3D ultrasonic navigation system together with mechanical arm placed on same robotic wheeled platform will be used for fire detection and to extinguish a fire.

Title of the Paper: Sound Pressure Measurement of Orchestral Instruments in the Concert Hall of a Public School


Authors: A. Ruggiero, M. C. De Simone, D. Russo, D. Guida

Pages: 75-81

Abstract: The aim of this work is the acoustical characterization of some orchestral instruments (flute, trumpet, bass tuba, drums, violin, horn, piano and tenor sax) in the concert hall of the Liceo Statale “Alfano I” in Salerno, Italy. The variations in respect of time and frequency of main acoustical parameters of all orchestral instruments used, relative to the C major diatonic scale - one octave ascending and one descending-, are reported. In particular, for the temporal variations of pressure levels measured there is a comparison between the average signal unweighted (LZeq average), signal A weighted (LAeq) and unweighted signal in FAST mode (LZF). In this paper the notes played in an acoustically correct room are measured using a class A phonometer. The results provide a useful data base both for designers who deal with predictive analysis for acoustic design of concert halls and those who digitally simulate sounds produced by orchestral instruments.

Title of the Paper: Possibilities of Recognition and Detection of Combustible Material in the Space Using by Infrared Camera


Authors: M. Struška, J. Struška, M. Popelka

Pages: 69-74

Abstract: The thermal images are produced from real working thermo vision cameras, which work as electro-optical imaging systems, sensitive to the mid and long wave infrared radiation, that generates images of the observed scenes, by using the thermal radiation emitted from the scenes. Article deals with proposal of intuitive fire system detection in a scene using the infrared camera. Discussed about method of algorithm for fire detection thermography image using mathematical and simulation program MATLAB/Simulink.

Title of the Paper: Bayesian Channel Estimation in Chaos Based Multicarrier CDMA System Under Slowly Varying Frequency Selective Channel


Authors: Meher Krishna Patel, Stevan M. Berber, Kevin W. Sowerby

Pages: 62-68

Abstract: This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the multicarrier-code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system in slowly time varying frequency selective channel. Chaotic sequences are used as spreading codes of CDMA system with BPSK modulation scheme. Performance improvement in Bayesian estimator in the presence of chaotic sequence is investigated. Under perfect synchronization assumption, bit error rate (BER) in closed form is derived under imperfect channel estimation for downlink communication system. Simulation results show that there is significant performance improvement in MC-CDMA system as compared to CDMA system.

Title of the Paper: A New Approach to Speech Quality Assessment Based on Back-Propagation Neural Networks


Authors: J. Rozhon, M. Voznak, F. Rezac, J. Slachta, J. Safarik

Pages: 52-61

Abstract: The paper deals with modelling network effects on the quality of speech. The packet loss modelling is based on the four-state markov chain, afterwards, the resilient back-propagation (Rprop) algorithm is applied to train a neural network. The proposed solution allows for quick and precise speech quality estimation without the need to analyze the voice signal carried and belongs to the non-intrusive models of speech quality assessment. The proposed solution is tested on G.711 A-law and further generalizes the already presented concepts of the speech quality estimation in the IP environment.

Title of the Paper: Design of Locator for Security Applications


Authors: Milan Adamek, Martin Pospisilik, Jiri Jakubec

Pages: 43-51

Abstract: The paper presents the construction of a locator to determine locations using GSM technology. The locator?s design will be tailored especially for the mobile security of more expensive items. The theoretical part will discuss different ways of positioning - using GSM technology in detail. In the conclusion, the benefits of GSM localisation for security applications are evaluated and compared to satellite locations

Title of the Paper: Adaptive Identification and PSD Controller Implementation into 8-bit Microcontroller


Authors: Stanislav Plšek, Vladimír Vašek

Pages: 29-35

Abstract: An application and an implementation of an adaptive identification and of Takahashi PSD controller are described in this article. The application is based on 8-bit HCS08 microcontroller (DZ family) from Freescale semiconductor. This family is intended for automotive application, and also for general purposes. Except the microcontroller, a power part and analog part of circuit was used for measure and converting a thermocouple temperature; it is directly measured inside the heater. This system is designed for fast temperature control of soldering precise tips. The controlled system is identified during heating process by the recursive least square method at the beginning of control process and on demand of user (when the tip is replaced by other type). The hardware was designed to save space and to minimize power loses on switching transistor. It leads to have the transistor without heatsink. The transistor was selected from PowerTrench family with an extremely low rDS(ON) resistance.

Title of the Paper: Highways Safety in Egypt


Authors: M. A. Massoud

Pages: 23-28

Abstract: Highways Safety is one of the most important topics in Egypt, because of the numbers of victims are increasing rapidly by accidents. This paper introduces a new Technique to deal with speed limit of the vehicle on the high roads. This system consists of two units a transmitter unit and receiver unit. At the entrance of the highway the transmitter unit is built. The vehicles have a receiver unit and received signals to limit speed by radio frequency signals. The technique can assist human drivers in difficult road circumstances.

Title of the Paper: Extraction of Three Dimensional Structure from Optical Image Sequences


Authors: Mohcine Boudhane, Hamza Toulni, Benayad Nsiri

Pages: 19-22

Abstract: Underwater imaging is a big challenge to discover and explore this environment. In this article, we proposed a 3D reconstruction method underwater using multi view 2D images in order to recovery of 3D shape from one or two 2D images. The conventional stereo approach based on perspective camera model cannot be directly applied and instead we used a spherical camera model to depict the relation between 3D point and its corresponding observation in the image. The stereo analysis problem consists of the following steps: image acquisition, camera modeling, feature extraction, image matching and depth determination. The sensor system generates a depth map in which each pixel represents a distance to the sensor. As a result, it can detect not only the presence of objects in the danger zone, but also their relative size and position. The system is implemented to reconstruct 3d scene using two or several three dimensional captures. It is also created to allow users to control the view perspective and obtain a better intuition of how the scene is rebuilt. Experiment results showed that the proposed approach offer a good preservation of the structure in sub-sea environment.

Title of the Paper: Recognize Faces Across Multi-View Videos and Under Varying Illumination, Facial Expressions


Authors: Steven Lawrence Fernandes, G. Josemin Bala

Pages: 7-18

Abstract: Recognition human faces across videos is simple when we find the frontal view of the person but it’s a challenging task across other views. Also recognizing human faces across varying illumination and facial expressions under un-controlled environment is equally challenging task. In this paper we have made and attempt to solve these problems by developing three novel techniques to recognize human faces from multi-view videos, varying Illumination and Facial Expression. All the three developed systems are validated on standard publicly available databases. Recognizing human faces images from multi-view videos is developed using Spherical Harmonics and Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel Technique, recognizing human faces across varying light conditions is developed by combining Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), andrecognizing human faces across varying facial expressions is developed by combing Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRF).

Title of the Paper: Testing and Fault Tolerance of Secured Circuits


Authors: G. Ait Abdelmalek, R. Ziani, M. Laghrouche

Pages: 1-6

Abstract: In this paper we studied the secured circuit’s testing and fault tolerance under resistive open defects. However, this work focused on the analysis of the impact of resistive-open defects on the electrical behavior of two categories of secured circuits implemented in Wave Dynamic Differential Logic (WDDL) and in Quasi Delay Insensitive (QDI). The quality of this analysis is verified by SPICE simulations. It is shown that the detection of defect depends on the open resistance value. The some results are given for the defect detection and the fault tolerance conditions.