International Journal of Communications

E-ISSN: 1998-4480
Volume 11, 2017

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 11, 2017

Title of the Paper: Cooperative Detection of Moving Target in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Adaptive Learning Decision Fusion


Authors: Yee Ming Chen, Chi-Li Tsai

Pages: 84-88

Abstract: Detection of a target occurrence is one of the main tasks of wireless sensor network in many applications. This paper has proposed a novel method of decision fusion based on simple reinforcement learning using the past experience for cooperative target detection. Simulations show that the proposed adaptive learning algorithm for fusion of weighted decisions could improve the detect probability effectively against ‘OR’, ‘AND’ and ‘K-out-of-N’ fusion rules. Monte Carlo Simulation results also show that proposed method achieves both better target detection and lower detection miss performance.

Title of the Paper: Calculations of Radiation Safety Distance for GSM, DCS, and UMTS Macrocell Mobile Base Station


Authors: Ibraheem M. Fayed, Eman S. El-Din

Pages: 78-83

Abstract: Wireless mobile communication networks have become essential for human life. A great booming and huge investments are devoted to develop the services without taking into considerations the health effect of electromagnetic radiations of the base stations concerning with these services. Base stations for wireless mobile communication have brought Electromagnetic Field (EMF) sources to the permanent residences of people. A global increase in the level of electromagnetic background has taken place leading to its continuing presence in the environment. Cellular mobile radio communications have developed rapidly in Egypt and are one of the most actively growing sectors of the national economy. Many studies were made in this field and they did not prove that there is no effect for the EMF radiated from the mobile base stations. So, in this paper a procedure will be proposed to calculate the safety distance that the human beings can exposure from macro-cell of mobile base station. An on field measurement has been done to confirm this safety distance.

Title of the Paper: NB-IoT Applications in Smart Grid: Survey and Research Challenges


Authors: Shahram Javadi, Sharifeh Seifvand

Pages: 74-77

Abstract: Narrow Band Internet of Things (NB-IoT) is a Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) technology standardized by 3GPP. It is a cellular technology with wide coverage, low power consumption, Low costs, and massive connections benefits. NB-IoT has the potential to improve the automation of processes and provide a better service in Smart Grid. Many attempts started to introduce the NB-IoT as enabling technology to the Smart Grid. In this paper, NB-IoT use cases and approaches in Smart Grid will be analyzed. Research works will be surveyed based on existing NB-IoT techniques, which address various benefits in Smart Grid networks. Solved problems and issues of these techniques will be summarized.

Title of the Paper: Electrical Shielding Effectiveness of PC Box; Effect of Polarization Angle and Aperture Dimension


Authors: I. B. Basyigit, A. Genc, B. Urul, S. Helhel

Pages: 70-73

Abstract: In this paper, the effects of an aperture shape and polarization angle have been investigated by means of measurement results. In the investigation, metallic computer box having same size of apertures were considered that there were 2mm metallic thickness. Measurements were conducted in the frequency range of 2.6 GHz to 9 GHz for all polarization of transmitting antenna with respect to longitudinal aperture orientation. It has been observed that electrical shielding effectiveness performance of hexagonal apertures is 10 dB better than elliptical apertures in this frequency range. Whereas elliptical aperture on empty case are performing better electrical shielding effectiveness than installed one up to 5.85 GHz, their performances merge at this point and beyond.

Title of the Paper: Contribution to the Performance Evaluation of the HEVC Model HM-16.15 for B Frame Processing


Authors: Zoran M. Miličević, Jovan G. Mihajlović, Zoran S. Bojković

Pages: 66-69

Abstract: This paper seeks to provide performance analysis for High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC) HM-16.15 reference coder for same resolution test sequences and picture structure. Two test sequences (resolutions) i.e., PeopleonStreet (2560x1600) and Traffic (2560x1600) are considered. The HEVC coder is tested for the fixed Quantization Parameter (QP) value in lowdelay and randomaccess configurations, with Main profile when B pictures are processed in IBBB format, respectively. Comparisons were performed with respect to the change of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), the change of data bit-rate and the change of encoding time saving, respectively. Simulation results have shown small differences in SNR values and obvious differences for bit rate and encoding time values. At the end, percent of intra and inter prediction in total amount encoder compression values are presented, too.

Title of the Paper: Performance Evaluation of MIMO-OFDM Communication Systems


Authors: M. I. Youssef, A. E. Emam, M. Abd Elghany

Pages: 59-65

Abstract: This paper evaluates the bit error rate (BER) performance of MIMO-OFDM communication system. MIMO system uses multiple transmitting and receiving antennas with different coding techniques to either enhance the transmission diversity or spatial multiplexing gain. Utilizing alamouti algorithm were the same information is transmitted over multiple antennas in different time intervals and then collected again at the receivers to minimize the probability of error, combat fading and thus improve the received signal to noise ratio. While utilizing V-BLAST algorithm the transmitted signals are divided into different transmitting channels and transferred over the channel to be received by different receiving antennas to increase the transmitted data rate and achieve higher throughput. The paper provides a study for different diversity gain coding schemes and spatial multiplexing coding for MIMO systems. A comparison of varies channels estimation and equalization techniques are given. The simulation is implemented using MATLAB and the results had shown the performance of transmission models under different channel environments.

Title of the Paper: An Efficient Technique for Interference Cancellation in Broadcast Channel of Multiuser MIMO System


Authors: Dalveer Kaur, Neeraj Kumar

Pages: 55-58

Abstract: In Multiuser MIMO system, multiple antennas are placed on base station and also on multiple users. Multiple antennas technique enhanced the performance parameters like reliability and data rate of wireless communication system without required more bandwidth, multiple antennas at transmitting and receiving end provides transmitting and receiving diversity, diversity increases the reliability of signal and spatial multiplexing increases the data rate by transmitting multiple information streams between transmitter and receiver. The base station transmits multiple streams to mobile station through downlink channel, known as broadcast channel and mobile users also transmit multiple streams to base station through uplink channel, known as multiple access channel. This paper considers only broadcast channel, the major issue in information transmission in broadcast channel is that the desired signal on the receiving side is affected by other user interference as well as inter-antenna interference. So, interference cancellation schemes on the transmitting end plays very important role to reduced interference on receiving end in multiuser MIMO wireless communication system. This paper discusses two interference cancellation schemes, Block Diagonalization (BD) and Dirty Paper Coding (DPC). Block Diaganalization is linear precoding technique that is used at transmitting end and it uses singular value decomposition operation to get block diagonalization precoding weights. Dirty Paper Coding is non-linear precoding technique; this technique is applied only when channel gains are completely known at transmitting end. This paper also shows performance comparison of block diagonalization and dirty paper coding schemes in term of Bit Error Rate.

Title of the Paper: An Efficient FPGA Based Implementation of Multichannel Satellite Modulator


Authors: K. K. Vinaymurthi, K. M. Nitin Babu, K. V. Sachin, S. V. Hariprasad

Pages: 49-54

Abstract: This paper discusses the design and successful implementation of a packet based Multichannel satellite modulator using efficient, novel Data buffering technique. The modulator receives data from IP network and transmits it to satellite network. The scheme allows for loss-less transfer of data from Best effort IP based packet network to a circuit switched fixed bit rate narrow band continuous satellite modulator. The multichannel scalable modulator is implemented in XilinxVirtex-6 FPGA. The IP packet processed by TI C6678 DSP reaches FPGA via EMIF interface as RAW chunk of data of multiple channels, which are further, processed and buffered using a novel low latency scheme. The buffered data is serialized and modulated. The modulation chain incorporates [1] INTELSATV.35 Scrambler, Differential encoder, 1/2 rate convolution encoder, RRC filtering and employs BPSK modulation.

Title of the Paper: A High-Efficiency Switching Amplifier Employing Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation


Authors: Jan Doutreloigne

Pages: 43-48

Abstract: This paper describes a new multi-level switching amplifier concept, targeting increased power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor. Interesting application fields include audio power amplifiers or line drivers in central-office ADSL and VDSL equipment. Calculations prove its superior power efficiency compared to conventional class-D switching amplifiers as well as linear class-AB and class-G amplifiers. A silicon implementation of a multi-level switching audio amplifier chip is currently in progress.

Title of the Paper: Comparison of Resonant Elements of Microstrip Reflectarray Antenna for Ku-Band Applications


Authors: Namrata V. Langhnoja, Ved Vyas Dwivedi

Pages: 39-42

Abstract: Design of unit cell of Microstrip Reflectarray Antenna (MRA) is one of important parameters. Using infinite array approach method, resonant element of MRA is observed in unit cell environment. The reflection phase curve helps to characterize different shapes of resonant elements.

Title of the Paper: Performance Enhancement Using Unitary Frequency Modulation with PLC and VLC Cooperation


Authors: Ye Tian, Chang-Jun Ahn

Pages: 34-38

Abstract: Visible light communication (VLC) is expected as a means for ubiquitous communication using increasingly popular LED lights. However, for indoor optical channel, the received signals are with line of sight (LOS) component but also delayed components due to reflected secondary paths. Therefore, the energy is spread over the time, resulting in a reduction of the converted current at the photodiode. From this reason, the diversity gain of VLC is rarely expected as compared to radio frequency systems. To improve the VLC performance, we consider the combination of power line communication (PLC) and VLC systems for achieving the frequency diversity with unitary space-time modulation. In this paper, we propose the diagonal components of unitary signal constellation with splitting over the coherence bandwidth, and evaluate the system performance for PLC-VLC/OFDM.

Title of the Paper: Simulated Annealing Based Femtocell Power Control in Heterogeneous LTE Networks


Authors: Aykut Kalaycıoğlu, Ahmet Akbulut

Pages: 27-33

Abstract: In two-layer heterogeneous femtocell LTE networks co-channel interference is a limiting factor for the overall system performance. Since both femtocell and macrocell users share the same frequency spectrum, there exists a co-channel interference in the downlink direction. In this study, a power management scheme for macrocells and femtocells in a heterogeneous network, based on simulated annealing optimization algorithm, is employed to adjust the transmission power of the femtocell base stations to mitigate the co-channel interference. The algorithm tries to maximize the signal-to-interference plus noise ratio of the users while minimizing the transmission power of the femtocell base stations. The simulation results show that any noticeable signal-to-interference plus noise ratio doesn’t occur for femtocell users while reducing the femtocell average power consumption dramatically. Besides, the signal-to-interference plus noise ratio for macrocell users is improved though. Thus, simulated annealing based power management is an effective solution to mitigate the co-channel interference for both the femtocell users and macrocell users in a heterogeneous Long Term Evolution network.

Title of the Paper: Simulation of Quantum Wires with Resonant Transmission Lines


Authors: C. D. Papageorgiou, T. E. Raptis, A. C. Boucouvalas

Pages: 22-26

Abstract: We use the previously introduced Resonant Transmission Line (RTL) method for numerically tackling the problem of a 1D quantum wire with arbitrary curvature allowing fast, efficient computation of both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Analysis reveals a strict dependency of the energy eigenvalues to the curvature magnitude with significant lowering and even vanishing of the first harmonic beyond a threshold value which severely affects excitability of each eigenfunction.

Title of the Paper: Macrodiversity Outage Performance in the Presence of Weibull Short Term Fading, Gamma Long Term Fading and α-κ-µ Co-channel Interference


Authors: Dragana S. Krstic, Siniša G. Minić, Srdjan Milosavljevic, Bojana Milosavljević, Mihajlo C. Stefanovic

Pages: 14-21

Abstract: Macrodiversity reception containing of macrodiversity selection combining (SC) receiver and two microdiversity SC receivers in the presence of short term fading, long term fading and co-channel interference is considered in this article. Desired signal experiences Weibull short term fading, correlated Gamma long term fading and co-channel interference experiences α-κ-µ short term fading and correlated Gamma long term fading. In this article, probability density function and cumulative distribution function of Weibull random process and α-κ-µ random process ratio are evaluated. Theses expressions are used for evaluation cumulative distribution function of signal to interference ratio at outputs of microdiversity SC receivers and cumulative distribution function of macrodiversity SC receiver output signal to interference ratio. Outage probability can be evaluated from cumulative distribution function. The influence of Weibull short term fading nonlinearity parameter, α-κ-µ short term fading severity parameter, α-κ-µ short term fading nonlinearity parameter, α-κ-µ short term fading Rician factor, Gamma long term fading severity parameter and Gamma long term fading correlation coefficient are analyzed.

Title of the Paper: Resonant Transmission Line Modeling of Holey Photonic Crystal Fibers


Authors: E. Georgantzos, T. E. Raptis, A. C. Boucouvalas, C. D. Papageorgiou

Pages: 8-13

Abstract: A holey optical fiber with hexagonal modulation of the refractive index is studied with the aid of the Resonant Transmission Line (RTL) method. We show how to obtain an average approximation of the radial refractive index profile that helps to simplify the final lay out of the transmission line model for all three spatial components of the electric and magnetic fields respectively.

Title of the Paper: Level Crossing Rate of Macrodiversity in the Presence of Mixed Short Term Fading, Gamma Long Term Fading and Co-channel Interference


Authors: Dragana Krstic, Srdjan Milosavljevic, Bojana Milosavljevic, Suad Suljovic, Mihajlo Stefanovic

Pages: 1-7

Abstract: In this paper, macrodiversity with macrodiversity selection reception and two microdiversity selection receptions operating over short term fading channel in the presence of long term fading and co-channel interference is considered. Desired signal in both, the first and the second microdiversity receivers is subjected to Rayleigh short term fading and Gamma long term fading. Co-channel interference in the first microdiversity receiver experiences Nakagami-m short term fading and Gamma long term fading and co-channel interference in the second microdiversity receiver experiences Rician short term fading and Gamma long term fading. Level crossing rate of the ratio of Rayleigh random variable and Nakagami-m random variable and the ratio of Rayleigh random variable and Rician random variable is evaluated. These formulae are used for calculation the level crossing rate of macrodiversity selection combining (SC) receiver output signal to interference ratio. The influence of Nakagami-m short term fading severity parameter and Rician κ factor on level crossing rate is analyzed and discussed.