International Journal of Energy

ISSN: 1998-4316
Volume 12, 2018

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 12, 2018

Title of the Paper: Mitigation of Network Congestion Resulting from on Grid PV System


Authors: Safaa M. Emara, Ayman. M. Soliman, Mohamed. S. El-bages, Ebtisam M. Saied, Mohamed M. Salama

Pages: 50-56

Abstract: Grid congestion problem is an event where the existing transmission and/or distribution lines are not capable to accommodate all required load. Congestion can be appeared in many ways, among this ways the surplus of the photovoltaic systems (PV) system. In this paper, the congestion problem resulting from the PV systems surpluses can be solved by disconnecting one or more PV unit with its client from the grid. This paper will present the problem solving by manipulating it as Knapsack Problem with proposed Greedy Algorithm (GA). The paper proved that, the greedy algorithm cannot find the optimum solution comparing by using another optimization technique, "Particle Swarm Optimization Technique (PSO)". The results find that the PSO is better than the GA. In the meantime alleviating the congestion by disconnection the client from the grid produces islanding mode with its relative problem. Several researches handled the islanding mode problem. Avoiding this mode can be done straight forward by proposed cancelling the disconnection process for the selected PV units controlling the output power to be stored locally. In which this avoiding will be investigated as a future work.

Title of the Paper: Evaluating the Algorithm of PV Units Disconnection for Alleviating the Grid Congestion


Authors: A. S. M. Emara, B. A. M. Soliman, C. M. S. El-bages, D. E. M. Saied, E. M. M. Salama

Pages: 44-49

Abstract: Electrical network congestion is a technical problem, which occurs in transmission lines and cabling due to insufficient transfer capabilities and line outages in the systems. Congestion problem is resulting from many of reasons. One of these reasons is the surpluses resulting from PV units. This paper discusses this reason, how to solve this problem and give an evaluation of this solution. Disconnecting the consumer with its PV from the network is our proposed solution for this trouble. One of the tool techniques which used for optimum selection of units to be disconnected is the Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSO). This solution enters the consumer in islanding mode in which will be evaluated. The paper provides some of recommendation for correction action.

Title of the Paper: Effects of Application of Small-sized Tip Fins on Characteristics of Savonius Vertical Wind Turbines


Authors: Shahrooz M., Abbaszadeh M., Hosseini S., Shamloo A.

Pages: 38-43

Abstract: The importance of Savonius vertical wind turbines is due to their high performance at low wind speeds and their independence from incoming wind direction. However, low output power has undermined the status of theese turbines. Present study suggests a novel idea; that is the application of tip fins which have the ability to control shear flow in Savonius wind turbines, to enhance the overall performance of savonius turbines. The investigation was carried out through utilization of numerical means. The use of the K-ε: Standard model was validated by modeling experimental tests from one of references and comparing outcomes with experimental data. Results of this study demonstrate that performance of Savonius rotors can be enhanced by over 40 percent with using tip fins. To provide a comprehensive insight toward effects of application of tip devices on savonious turbines, performance of a standard turbine with semicircular blade profile was investigated through different angular positions along with a modified profile. The deep investigation revealed new interesting features such as degradation of turbine performance due to existence of overlap in presence of tip devices.

Title of the Paper: Simulation of Cascaded H- Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Several Multicarrier Waveforms and Implemented with PD, POD and APOD Techniques


Authors: Babkrani Youssef, Naddami Ahmed, Hayani Sanaa, Hilal Mohamed

Pages: 32-37

Abstract: Power Quality has been a problem ever since electrical power was invented and in recent years, it has become the main interest of researchers who are still concerned about finding ways to reduce its negative influence on electrical devices. Harmonics are an important factor in power quality and also to maintain stable power supply performance, so inverters with harmonic reduction is required. In this paper, several multicarrier techniques are evaluated for cascaded H bridge multilevel inverter and being implemented with several level-shifted Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques such as phase disposition (PD), phase opposition disposition (POD) and alternative phase opposition disposition (APOD) .The line voltage and total harmonics distortion (THD) are acquired and are compared with the conventional technique. We also propose a modification on trapezoidal multicarrier aiming to reduce the harmonics. This modification introduces a sinusoidal wave compared with modified trapezoidal multi-carrier to generate the pulses. To know which technique is the best, these PWM techniques are simulated via MATLAB/SIMULINK. R2014a in order to obtain the line voltages and the total harmonic distortions (THD).

Title of the Paper: Emerging Applications of Carbon Nanotube Wires in Electromagnetic Machines


Authors: Sumeet Chaudhary, Shweta Avinash Nair, Francois Tchondou Nyamsi, Mark Schulz, Massoud Maxwell Rabiee, Marc Cahay

Pages: 26-31

Abstract: Currently, there is a strong need for improving the efficiency of electromagnetic machines as they have become an increasing part of our daily lives. The field of electric machines has seen steady growth in the last decade. However, no recent significant breakthrough has been made in the design of electric machines. To bring about a noteworthy change in this field, it is likely that new materials must be used. The recent advances made in the synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT) materials have opened new doors of opportunity for the macroscopic application of CNT fibers. It has been found that CNT based wires have advantages over copper wires in terms of stability at extreme conditions, such as working at high temperatures, and the ability to withstand harsh chemical treatments. It has been shown that CNTs, owing to their “one dimensional” and symmetrical structure, can move charge carriers along the tube without scattering. If this behavior could be scaled-up to macroscale wires, carbon nanotube wire would replace the currently used copper wires. Due to the absence of scattering, the resistivity of individual CNTs have been found to be in the order of 〖10〗^(-8) Ωm. However, in macroscale carbon nanotube wire, the resistivity is about 100 times greater than the resistivity of individual nanotubes. The positive aspect is the density of carbon wire is about 1/5 the density of metal wire. In this paper, an extensive study is described on the state-of-the-art advances made in the synthesis of CNT based continuous fibers and the possibility of using CNT wires as an alternative to the traditionally used copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) conductors in electromagnetic devices. As shown from the results of the CNT based electromagnetic machines investigated, a significant amount of research is still required to improve the performance of CNT macrostructures such as yarns and sheets in hope of replacing metal conductors.

Title of the Paper: Study Regarding the Development of an Efficient Energy Management Programme for the Processing Industry


Authors: Badea Lepadatescu

Pages: 20-25

Abstract: The first part of the paper discusses the necessity of developing an energy saving programme, and presents the main energy consumers of industry and the significant weight held by energy related costs in the turnover of production systems in processing industry. Further the paper describes and analyses the steps to be followed in developing an efficient energy management programme. Some of these steps are: appointment by the administration board of a manager for energy related issues, an energy audit, including a complete inventory of the energy consuming equipment, the diagram of the process flow, a general view on the operation practice, answers to a list of specific questions, identification of opportunities and their economic assessment, prioritising and grouping them into the fields of: lighting, drives, cooling, ventilation, heating, approval of the energy management programme by the administration board, implementation of the approved programme, starting with the engineering design part required by each established measure. The second part of the paper shows a way to produce energy using a wind turbine with vertical axis helical rotor shape with good energetic performances even at low wind speed. In a renewable energy system, the energy is generated according to the weather rather than on demand. In the absence of storage, a great deal of this energy will be dumped. On of the problem with renewable energy is the high capital cost. The energy is diffuse and demands large structures to collect and convert it. The equipment is expensive and comes with a large amount of infrastructure. There is an energy cost associated with manufacturing renewable energy output. Other problem with renewable energy is its intermittency. Unlike fossil fuel, the source cannot be controlled to match demand. The energy is not available all the time, and may not even be easy to predict. To match supply to demand, it may be necessary to store energy, or to reschedule our use of energy, or to use a mixture of different energy sources. Also, is presented a Monte-Carlo simulation of wind turbine parameters for cumulative frequency distribution for wind speed and for relative frequency histogram for annual energy output.

Title of the Paper: Low Voltage Low Power FGMOS Based Voltage Differencing Transconductance Amplifier and its Applications


Authors: Charu Rana, Dinesh Prasad, Neelofar Afzal

Pages: 12-19

Abstract: This paper presents a low voltage low power configuration of voltage differencing transconductance amplifier based on floating gate MOSFET. The proposed VDTA variant operates at supply voltage ±0.7 V with total static power dissipation of 90 μW due to low

Title of the Paper: Malik Muhammad Zaid, Muhammad Usama Malik, Muhammad Sibtain Bhatti, Hamid Razzaq, Muhammad Umair Aslam


Authors: Malik Muhammad Zaid, Muhammad Usama Malik, Muhammad Sibtain Bhatti, Hamid Razzaq, Muhammad Umair Aslam

Pages: 6-11

Abstract: In this project, PQ analyzer is developed. This paper depicts the detection and classification of sag, swell, interruption, undervoltage and overvoltage by uninterruptedly monitoring of single phase power system. All the perceptions and classifications are accomplished by using Advanced Digital Signal Processor (ADSP-21369). In this project, the prototype is configured with the LabVIEW to receive and store all the data which is sent by the processor via UART interface (RS-232 protocol).

Title of the Paper: Experience to Electrical Engineering Students the Principles of Smart Grid Platform


Authors: Hen Friman

Pages: 1-5

Abstract: World Energy Consumption relies heavily on coal, oil, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, that is, they rely on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensive or too environmentally damaging to retrieve. In contrast, renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar energy, are constantly replenished and will never run out. Due to the rising need for professionals and academics with a background and understanding in the Smart Grid and Renewable Energy fields, Holon Institute of Technology ("HIT") developed a new program at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. The Renewable Energy program gives the students technical and practical aspects of energy use (technology and methodology of the study) and energy efficiency. The program also deals with minimizing the environmental impacts of energy use, as well as with energy economy and environmental policy. HIT offers its students a well-equipped laboratory, containing state of the art equipment in various fields such as: photovoltaic energy systems, a smart grid telecommunications and information security platform, wind and water energy work stations, and power electronics equipment. This article presents the latest teaching and conclusions obtained in experiments conducted on the system platform.