International Journal of Biology and Biomedical Engineering

E-ISSN: 1998-4510
Volume 14, 2020

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 14, 2020

Title of the Paper: Stress Classification Using K-means Clustering and Heart Rate Variability from Electrocardiogram


Authors: Mingu Kang, Siho Shin, Jaehyo Jung, Youn Tae Kim

Pages: 251-254

Abstract: In this study, we propose a method to classify individuals under stress and those without stress using k-means clustering. After extracting the R and S peak values from the ECG signal, the heart rate variability is extracted using a fast Fourier transform. Then, a criterion for classifying the ECG signal for the stress state is set, and the stress state is classified through k-means clustering. In addition, the stress level is indicated using the R-Speak value. This method is expected to be applied to the U-healthcare field to help manage the mental health of people suffering from stress.

Title of the Paper: The Effect of Bintaro (Cerbera manghas) Leaf Extract on Transmission of Aphids (Homoptera) in Chili (Capsicum annuum) Plants


Authors: Achmadi Susilo, Dwi Haryanta,Tatuk Tojibatus Sa’adah

Pages: 239-250


Abstract: One of the threats in the cultivation of chili is the presence of aphids attack.The study aims to determine the effect of bintaro / (Cerbera manghas)leaf extract spraying as a bio-pesticide on the transmission patterns of aphids in chili plants.The experimental method refers to the Painter resistance test(Painter, 1951). Factorial experiment with factor I treatment was the concentration of bintaro leaf extract with six levels namely 0.0% concentration; 2.5%concentration; 5.0%concentration; 7.5%concentration; 10.0%concentration; and 12.5%concentration. Factor II treatment was the frequency of spraying namely F1 sprayed once a week (sunday), and F2 is sprayed twice a week (Sunday and Wednesday). Overall there are 12 treatment combinations. The experimental unit is a polybag planted by one stem of chili per polybag so that it requires 60 plant polybags, carried out in a controlled field from the presence of other animals by covering it with a mosquito net. In the inside of the lid of mosquito net is infested with chili plants which are attacked by aphids. Source of inoculum of one plant stem attacked by aphids for each containment/lid (each experimental group).The number of insects that transmitted to the treatment plants was observed every two days or before spraying, while the damage to plants at the end of the experiment. The results showed that there were two types of aphids that attacked the inoculum source plant namely Bemesia tabaci (whitefly) and Aphis gossypii (Aphid) and there were symbionts in the form of black ants (Dolichoderus thoracicus Smith). Transmission occurs since one day after infestation. Population density of the three insect species in each treatment was significantly different, there was an interaction between treatment concentrations with the frequency of bintaro leaf extract spraying, but the density was not consistent from one observation to the next. Plant damage occurs in all plants and the frequency of spraying can reduce damage to the chili plants.

Title of the Paper: Repelence of Bintaro Plant Extract (Cerbera Manghas) Against Pod-sucking Insects (Riptortus Linearis) (Hemiptera)


Authors: Dwi Haryanta, Achmadi Susilo, Tatuk Tojibatus Saadah

Pages: 229-238


Abstract: The mechanism of the organic pesticides of Bintaro plant extract (Cerbera manghas) in reducing the insect pest population needs to be continuously studied. The study aims to determine the Repelence (ability to resist) of bintaro plant extracts against brown ladybugs (Riptortus linearis). The factorial experiment with the first-factor treatment was extracted Bintaro plant organs, namely leaf extract, stem bark extract, fruit pulp extract and bintaro seed extract, while the second treatment factor was the extract concentration (w/v), namely a concentration of 2,5%, a concentration of 7,5%, and a concentration of 12,5%. The experimental variables were the chemical compound content of each Bintaro plant part extract, insect mortality, length of each instar and stadia, and development into the next instar or stadia. The research results showed that Bintaro plants (leaves, fruit, seeds and bark) contain ingredients that can be used as organic pesticides. Bintaro plant extract has an effect on the mortality and development of Riptortus linearis insects. The results of the Bintaro plant extract test on the mortality and development of Riptortus linearis insects are less significant if it will be used to suppress the population, but the application of organic pesticides in the field is proven to be able to suppress the population, reduce the level of crop damage and increase crop production.

Title of the Paper: MR Brain Image Segmentation Optimized by Using Ant Colony Algorithm with BrainSeg3D for Multiple Sclerosis Tumors Detection


Authors: Dalenda Bouzidi, Fahmi Ghozzi, Khaled Taouil, Ahmed Fakhfakh

Pages: 218-228


Abstract: Nowadays, Brain tumors segmentation is a very important task in diagnosis of brain lesions.There are diversapproaches of segmentation, but segmentation of brain tumors is always difficult due to the complex features of magnetic resonance imaging MRI such as the appearance of vague and unclear tumors and boundaries. In this paper, an automatic MRI segmentation method is used to solve these problems. Here, tumor segmentation is treated as a problem of classification using the Ant Colony ACO optimization algorithm combined with a proposed protocol based on BrainSeg3D tools. Many studies and many existing approaches tend the multiple sclerosis (MS) which is a chronic inflammatory anomaly of the central nervous system. To pick up the outliers of multiple sclerosis, we should do a diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging with various sequences. For this aim, some late technics of segmentation and classification of MRI images have been suggested for the automatic detection of MS outliers. In this work, we submit a novel protocol based on current and novel semi-automated tumors segmentation technics of BrainSeg3D. Evaluation of our results was performed on novel MR database containing 30 MS patients, which were learned with a 3T MR scanner with conventional sequences so that to estimate our assessment with the acquired consensus segmentation with ground truth data. The submitted algorithm is evaluated by using MATLAB GUI program and BrainSeg3D tools.

Title of the Paper: An Agent-based Simulation of the SIRD model of COVID-19 Spread


Authors: Norah I. Alsaeed, Eman Y. Alqaissi, Muazzam A. Siddiqui

Pages: 210-217


Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in more than a million deaths worldwide and wreaked havoc on world economies. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, belongs to a family of coronaviruses that have appeared in the past; however, this virus has been proven to be more lethal and have a much higher infection rate than coronaviruses that have previously emerged. Vaccines for COVID-19 are still in development phases, with limited deployment, and the most effective response to the pandemic has been to adopt social distancing and, in extreme cases, complete lockdown. This paper adopts a modified SIRD (Susceptible, Infectious, Recovered, Deaths) disease spread model for COVID-19 and utilizes agent-based simulation to obtain the number of infections in four different scenarios. The simulated scenarios utilized different contact rates in order to identify their effects on disease spread. Our results confirmed that not taking strict precautionary procedures to prohibit human interactions will lead to increased infections and deaths, adversely affecting countries’ healthcare infrastructure. The model is flexible, and other studies can use it to measure other parameters discovered in the future.

Title of the Paper: Sum of Sine Modeling Approach as a New Processing Technique For a Biometric System Based on ECG Signal


Authors: Abbas Abou, Mohammad Ayache, Alaa Daher

Pages: 204-209


Abstract: Biometrics is considered in current research as one of the best methods for authenticating human beings. In our paper, the heartbeat biometric, also called Electrocardiographic (ECG), is working on. This biometric is chosen because human ECGs cannot be falsely created and replicated. This study aims to find the best features from this biometric that can identify a person, given the extractions and classification algorithms for the heartbeat biometric signal. Depending on a literature study we work to propose a new and more efficient technique based on a new method for ECG features extraction and these features will be the inputs for pattern recognition classifier. This methodology will be tested on real experimental ECG data that is collected. The Data collected from 10 subjects by a commercial ECG device taking the data from lead 1. The pre-processing steps start with the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) before digital filters which are: low pass, high pass, and derivative pass filters. Features extraction steps are peak detection, segmentation, and wave modeling for each segment. The classification used the Multi-Layer Perceptron and compared it to classification using Radial Basis Function were the results of MLP were much better for these applications since the accuracy of the final results of MLP is 99% and that related to the RBF is 95%.

Title of the Paper: The Effectiveness Of Video-Online Education On Cadres’ Knowledge And Attitude About The Importance Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing In Public Health Center


Authors: Gita Sekar Prihanti, Aulia Devina Rizkitananda, Dewinda Nur Mayaningsari, Isti Eka Karunia, Mutiara Sukma Sholihah, Ratika Velanuari Rostagama, Umar Asadullah

Pages: 197-203


Abstract: HIV education and tests are the main entrance for prevention, care and treatment support. Video as an educational tool, convey clear, consistent, and unbiased information while easy to use, effective as face-to-face interactions, yet, online-video has never been used in previous studies regardless of its easy-dissemination. Therefore, health cadres hold important tasks in educating people about the importance of HIV. To determine online-video effectiveness on knowledge increment and cadres’ attitude toward HIV testing importance in Public Health Centers. This study used a cross-sectional method with one group pretest and posttest models. The research sample was 50 HIV cadres using a total sampling technique. Data were analyzed using McNemar test to determine the comparison between pretest and posttest of knowledge and attitude variables. Research findings that before and after the intervention was carried out, there were differences in the results on the knowledge and attitude variables. Based on the McNemar test for the variables of knowledge and attitudes obtained significant results (p = 0.00). This research concludes that o nline-video is effective in increasing knowledge and attitudes of HIV cadres toward the importance of HIV testing in Public Health Centers. In addition, it is necessary to have a combination of other interventions (FGD, flip sheets, counseling, leaflets) using a cohort or RCT method with a larger sample

Title of the Paper: The Response of Eggplant (Solanum Melongena L.) Growth Planted on Raised-Bog Peatland towards the Provision of Chicken Dung and Swallow Guano


Authors: Hariyadi

Pages: 191-196


Abstract: Eggplant (Solanum Melongena L.) is one of the agricultural commodities needed and a kind of vegetables favored because it is not only good in the taste, it also contains potassium and vitamin A which can be beneficial for the body. Eggplant production in Indonesia is low, but the need is high. So it is necessary to increase production, one of them is conducting agricultural extensification. Agricultural extensification can be carried out on land that has not been used properly, such as raised-bog peatland. On the other hand, raised-bog peatland is marginal land that is poor in nutrients and acidic in nature, so that the condition of the peatland is not supportive for plant growth. Therefore, it is necessary to add organic materials such as chicken dung and swallow guano to support the growth and yield of eggplant on raised-bog peatland. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chicken dung and swallow guano and their interaction on the yield of eggplant (Solanum Melongena L.) in the raised-bog peatland. This research used a group-randomized design (GRD) with 2 factors: chicken dung and swallow guano as fertilizer with 3 equal levels (a1/w1 = 5 tons/ha; a2/w2 = 10 tons/ha; a3/w3 = 15 tons/ha). The parameter observed and measured were the yield of eggplant. The results showed that the single use of swallow guano as fertilizer had a significant effect on fruit diameter and length, the quantity of fruit for each plant, the average weight of fresh fruit, fruit weight for each plant, and fruit weight for each hectare. On the other hand, the use of chicken dung as fertilizer had a significant effect on the number of fruit per plant, fruit weight per plant, and fruit weight per hectare. The results showed that the best eggplant yield component was obtained from the addition of swallow guano fertilizer at a dose of 15 t ha-1, namely resulted in a fruit weight per plant of 541,14 g tan-1 and a total fruit weight per ha of 12,88 t ha-1. Whereas in chicken dung fertilizer treatment, the most optimum dose is 10 t ha-1 which can produce eggplant fruit weight per plant of 531,56 g tan-1 and 12,66 t ha-1 in total eggplant fruit weight per ha.

Title of the Paper: Model Analysis and Simulation on Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Economy: a Case Study of Thailand’s Gdp and Its Lock Down Measures


Authors: Chontita Rattanakul, Yongwimon Lenbury

Pages: 180-190


Abstract: COVID-19 could affect the global and local economy mainly by directly affecting production, by creation of disruption in supply chains and markets, as well as through its financial impact on firms and markets and organizations. However, the extent to which the impact is felt depends a great deal on the how governments and the public react to the disease. Here, a model is proposed to investigate the effect of the spread of corona virus infection and the consequent measures taken in response to its spread to lessen its impacts on the society and the economy. The interaction between the number of infected individuals and the variations in the national Growth Product, GDP, is modeled by a system of impulsive non-linear difference equations with delays. We are specifically interested in how different lock down measures effect business recovery as reflected by the national GDP. The model is analyzed to obtain valuable insights as to the factors that could yield different successes in the pandemic control and business recovery in various scenarios. Based on data of newly infected cases and cumulative cases weekly in Thailand, the model is simulated in a variety of scenarios to illustrate how different strategies and lockdown measures may give rise to different recovery rates

Title of the Paper: Pesticide residue monitoring in the European Union Agricultural Sector via modern analytical techniques. A review on Organophosphates


Authors: Manolis N. Kokkinakis, Manolis N. Tzatzarakis, Ioannis Tsakiris, Alexander I. Vardavas, Constantine I. Vardavas, Polychronis Stivaktakis, Aikaterini Kokkinaki

Pages: 169-179


Abstract: Organophosphate exposure, via food products circulated within the EU member states, is monitored by various researchers and the results are provided to their corresponding national authorities or to official European monitoring bodies. Different analytical methods for the detection of pesticide residues in food products are applied, although the most preferable method used lately in private or educational laboratories is the QuEChERS method (a solid phase extraction technique) whereas the ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system is gradually gaining ground in regard to pesticide residue trace analysis. This review focused on analyzing, from collected published data, the preferred methods for the detection of organophosphate pesticide residues in food products from the European Union Agricultural Sector. Even though a European legislation exists and applies strict guidelines, regulations and even bans, in order to reduce the use of persistent pesticides and to encourage the development of target specific pesticides, this review shows the current state for monitoring and detecting pesticide residues in general, as well as their possible drawbacks and possible active solutions for pesticide monitoring in today’s agriculture sector. In addition, results in the existing literature are sufficient to demonstrate the difference in efficiency for monitoring and detecting organophosphate pesticide residues, however, more studies are needed to evaluate the available analytical techniques so as to strengthen the existing literature and to confirm the existing data.

Title of the Paper: Modeling Blood Pulsatile Turbulent Flow in Stenotic Coronary Arteries


Authors: Violeta Carvalho, Nelson Rodrigues, Rui A. Lima, Senhorinha Teixeira

Pages: 160-168


Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a potentially serious illness where arteries become clogged with fatty substances called plaques. Over the years, this pathological condition has been deeply studied and computational fluid dynamics has played an important role in investigating the blood flow behavior. Commonly, the blood flow is assumed to be laminar and a Newtonian fluid. However, under a stenotic condition, the blood behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid and the pulsatile blood flow through coronary arteries could result in a transition from laminar to turbulent flow condition. The present study aims to analyze and compare numerically the blood flow behavior, applying the k-ω SST model and a laminar assumption. The effects of Newtonian and non-Newtonian (Carreau) models were also studied. In addition, the effect of the stenosis degree on velocity fields and wall shear stress based descriptors were evaluated. According to the results, the turbulent model is shown to give a better overall representation of pulsatile flow in stenotic arteries. Regarding, the effect of non-Newtonian modeling, it was found to be more significant in wall shear stress measurements than in velocity profiles. In addition, the appearance of recirculation zones in the 50% stenotic model was observed during systole, and a low TAWSS and high OSI were detected downstream of the stenosis which, in turn, are risk factors for plaque formation. Finally, the turbulence intensity measurements allowed to distinguish regions of recirculating and disturbed flow.

Title of the Paper: Adaptive Mechanisms of a Mouse Locomotor Muscles "M. Soleus" and "M. Edl" the Conditions of the Allergic Modification of the Organism


Authors: Albert M. Farkhutdinov, Alexander Y. Teplov, Vladimir I. Torshin*, Elena B. Yakunina, Victor A. Moroz, Olga V. Mankaeva, Zarina V. Bakaeva, Yuri P. Starshinov

Pages: 154-159


Abstract: The relevance of the problem discussed in the article is connected to the fact that mandatory athletes’ vaccination before competitions leads to the change in the function of the muscular system, the mechanisms of which have not yet been fully clarified. The purpose of the article is to determine the mechanism of a mouse skeletal muscles adaptation (SM) ("fast" (in case of m.edl) and "slow" (in case of m.soleus) in case of allergic alteration. The following research methods were used in the presented work: registration of the constrictive function of the abovementioned muscles in vitro to the humoral constriction initiators (carbacholinum and KCI) and determination of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) level in them, just as the indicators of the oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. It has been demonstrated that the change in the “slow” muscle strength correlates with the MDA level dynamics, evidently, reflects the adaptation processes during the allergic modification. "Fast" muscles turn out to be more sustainable to oxidative stress which is most probably achieved by the work of compensatory mechanisms and is expressed in quite minor changes in the MDA dynamics. The article can be used in the search of the new possibilities for the correction of the locomotor muscles function in the conditions of the allergy, аnd also while the therapeutic impact strategy is determined, taking into account their fiber composition.

Title of the Paper: Structural Changes in Transcriptional Regulatory Networks for Cell-type-specific Gene Expression During Hematopoiesis


Authors: Jun Nakabayashi

Pages: 144-153


Abstract: Hematopoiesis is an extensively studied model system for cell differentiation. Cell-type-specific gene expression patterns are observed during hematopoiesis. Gene expression is governed by regulatory networks composed of cell-type-specific transcription factors. Resolving the transcriptional regulatory network for cell-type-specific gene expression provides a promising means of understanding the mechanisms underlying cell fate decisions. In this study, transcriptional regulatory networks in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were predicted based on gene expression profiles and distributions of transcription factor binding motifs in the promoter regions of cell-type-specific transcription factors. In particular, structural changes that occur when pluripotent stem cells progress to lineage-committed progenitors were evaluated. Marked changes in the regulatory circuit of transcription throughout the differentiation process could be elucidated by network analysis. Modular structures were a frequently described feature of biological networks observed in estimated networks. Within a module, most transcription factors were found to be regulated by a small number of regulators acting as downstream targets. Certain regulators within these modules coincide with known key regulators of hematopoietic cell differentiation. In addition to the modular structure, a twolayered structure was clearly observed in progenitor regulatory networks. Transcription factors could be distinctly divided into regulators within the regulatory layer and into targets in the output layer according to their degree of distribution. The restriction of mutual regulation between transcription factors was remarkable in that it allowed for alterations in network structures between hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Thus, using this approach, the relationships among transcription factors could be revealed by a reduction in mutual regulation to form a modular structure within the regulatory network

Title of the Paper: Automatic Segmentation Scheme for Effective Synchronization of EMG-EEG Quantification


Authors: Suprijanto, Azizah S. Noor, Ayu G. Risangtuni, Hesty Susanti

Pages: 136-143


Abstract: Effective segmentation of electromyography (EMG) burst that synchronizes with electroencephalography (EEG) for long-duration recording is important steps to better understand the quantification of brain-muscle connectivity in periodic motoric activities. The work proposes an alternative automatic EMG segmentation scheme consists of four main steps, i.e. denoising of EMG burst signal using discrete wavelet transform, enveloping signal using time-windows averaging of RMS amplitude, an adaptive threshold to detect start/end burst envelope with accommodation of muscle contraction characteristic and the final step is conversion enveloping signal to binary segmentation signal.The proposed scheme is evaluated to detect contraction period/duration of EMG for the subject under repetitive holding and releasing grasp using a physiotherapy device. During exercise, the bio-amplifier board is customized to acquire simultaneous EEG and EMG from the region of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) of muscle and cortical motor of the brain, with total 284 EMG burst that counting by manual segmentation. The automatic segmentation can detect the total EMG burst by 6.25% error of false burst detection.The usefulness of proposed scheme is also tested to association analysis according to the power of EMG burst and the power of mu-wave of EEG recorded on the motor cortex. The changing trend of the power of mu-wave associated with muscle relaxation, muscle contraction strength and the synchronization level on the motor cortex during exercise are analyzed with integrated information that is relevant with biofeedback concept. The results demonstrate that proposed scheme has potential to be an effective method for the evaluation of biofeedback rehabilitation exercise.

Title of the Paper: A Deep Learning Approach for Robotic Arm Control using Brain-Computer Interface


Authors: John Sahaya Rani Alexb, Md Amaan Haquea, Anuj Ananda, Anmol Gautama, Nithya Venkatesana

Pages: 128-135


Abstract: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a technology that enables a human to communicate with an external stratagem to achieve the desired result. This paper presents a Motor Imagery (MI) – Electroencephalography (EEG) signal based robotic hand movements of lifting and dropping of an external robotic arm. The MI-EEG signals were extracted using a 3-channel electrode system with the AD8232 amplifier. The electrodes were placed on three locations, namely, C3, C4, and right mastoid. Signal processing methods namely, Butterworth filter and Sym-9 Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD) were applied on the extracted EEG signals to de-noise the raw EEG signal. Statistical features like entropy, variance, standard deviation, covariance, and spectral centroid were extracted from the de-noised signals. The statistical features were then applied to train a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) - Deep Neural Network (DNN) to classify the hand movement into two classes; ‘No Hand Movement’ and ’Hand Movement’. The resultant k-fold cross-validated accuracy achieved was 85.41% and other classification metrics, such as precision, recall sensitivity, specificity, and F1 Score were also calculated. The trained model was interfaced with Arduino to move the robotic arm according to the class predicted by the DNN model in a real-time environment. The proposed end to end low-cost deep learning framework provides a substantial improvement in real-time BCI.

Title of the Paper: The Influence Of Treatment Variation Of Plant Promoting Bacteria In Cultivation On The Quality Of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. Ssp. pekinensis)


Authors: Triani I G.A.L, Soemarno, B. T. Rahardjo, E. Zubaidah

Pages: 114-127


Abstract: The use of plant promoting bacteria in experimental land in Mayungan village, Tabanan, Bali is an effort to reduce the use of chemicals during Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. Ssp.pekinensis) cultivation.This research was conducted to determine variations in the treatment of plant-promoting bacteria on the quality of Chinese cabbage produced. Chinese cabbage results from variations in the treatment of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) compared with Chinese cabbage obtained from conventional farmers. This research uses factorial randomized block design with 2 factors. The first factor is the duration of the seeds soaking with PGPR solution namely 0, 10, 20, and 30 minutes, while the second factor is the use of PGPR concentrations when watering the plants in the beds (plant age 2 weeks), namely: 0; 1.25; 2.5 and 3.75 cm3/L. Data from laboratory analysis results were analyzed using analysis of variance, then the data analyzed by using the Tukey test at the 5% level, the data processing using the Minitab17 program. Determination of the best treatment is determined based on the effectiveness index (EI) method. In the treatment variation of the use of PGPR slightly increases the levels of organic matter and Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium of the soil, while the yield and plant height are slightly below Chinese cabbage which derived from conventional farmers. Based on the research results variations in the use of PGPR has the influence on the chlorophyll content, total dissolved solids, texture, brightness levels, but does not has an influence on the vitamin C in Chinese cabbage. The research results obtained Chinese cabbage with seed soaking for 20 minutes and the use of PGPR when watering plants in the beds equal to 2.5 cm3/L is the best result, these results are almost the same as Chinese cabbage from conventional farmers.

Title of the Paper: Tolerance of Genetically Distant Cotton Hybrids to Cotton Bollworm (Helicoverpa Armigera) in Depending of the Level of (+)- Gossypol in Seeds


Authors: Ikrom Amanturdiev, Sayfulla Boboyev, Mirvakhob Mirakhmedov, Akhmedjanova Gulnoza

Pages: 109-113


Abstract: In this paper presents obtained data on the natural background about on tolerance of senior generations of cotton hybrids to cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) with different levels of (+) - gossypol in seeds. On the basis was obtained results, revealed that the level of (+) - gossypol in seeds does not significantly resistance to cotton bollworm, i.e. Confirmed the possibility of selecting new broods and lines of cotton with different levels (+) - gossypol and tolerance to Helicoverpa armigera. Results of researches of comparative resistance to Helicoverpa armigera among hybrids of different generations in petri dishes, it was established that progenies with a different levels of (+) - gossypol, a definite pattern is observed for affection. Genotypes with a low level of (+)- gossypol are affected by Helicoverpa armigera to a certain extent less than hybrids with high (+)-gossypol level. Although, the incidence of the initial accession BC3S1-1-6-3-15 of US with a high level of gossypol does not preclude the possibility of developing of resistant genotypes with a high level of (+)-gossypol, which requires additional researches in this direction.

Title of the Paper: Differential Morphophysiological Characteristics of Erythrocyte Precursors and Mature Erythroid Cells in Early Postnatal Ontogenesis of Birds


Authors: E. A. Kolesnik, M. A. Derkho, V. K. Strizhikov, S. V. Strizhikova, F. G. Gizatullina, T. A. Ponomaryova

Pages: 101-108


Abstract: In accordance with the recommendations of The International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH,, this article describes the morphophysiological characteristics of the precursors and mature erythroid cells in the early period of postnatal development of birds (Gallus gallus L.) including calculation of the surface area of these cells (S, μm2, X±SEM). Depending on cell shape, cytoplasm color, and chromatin organization in nucleus, the following types are distinguished: basophilic erythroblasts (69.60±4.01 μm2, p≤0.05), polychromatophilic erythroblasts (65.42±2.49 μm2, p≤0.05), and oxyphilic erythroblasts (71.10±4.43 μm2). Formation of cell pool is characteristic for erythropoiesis in birds due to mitotic proliferation of basophilic erythroblasts. There are often proerythroblasts and polychromatophilic erythroblasts. The nucleus of a polychromatophilic proerythroblast contains a large number of histone proteins; therefore, it has an intensely basophilic color with a pronounced oxyphilic hue (protein-related oxyphilia). The accumulation of hemoglobin in the protoplasm of these cells contributes to the gradual transition of the basophilic staining of cytoplasm to the oxyphilic one which is typical for mature red blood cells (73.95±2.10 μm2, p≤0.05). Cell shape and the structure of erythroblast nucleus approaches to these of mature red blood cell

Title of the Paper: Estimation of Blood Glucose Concentration During Endurance Sports


Authors: Giovanni Sebastiani, Stig Uteng, Fred Godtliebsen, Jan Polàk, Jan Brož

Pages: 96-100


Abstract: In this paper, we describe a new statistical approach to estimate blood glucose concentration along time during endurance sports based on measurements of glucose concentration in subcutaneous interstitial tissue. The final goal is the monitoring of glucose concentration in blood to maximize performance in endurance sports. Blood glucose concentration control during and after aerobic physical activity could also be useful to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects. By means of a low invasive technology known as "continuous glucose monitoring", glucose concentration in subcutaneous interstitial tissue can now be measured every five minutes. However, it can be expressed as function of blood glucose concentration along time by means of a convolution integral equation. In the training phase of the proposed approach, based on measurements of glucose concentration in both artery and subcutaneous interstitial tissue during physical activity, the parameters of the convolution kernel are estimated. Then, given a new subject performing aerobic physical activity, a deconvolution problem is solved to estimate glucose concentration in blood from continuous glucose monitoring measurements.

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Lipid Lowering Effect of Milk Thistle (Silybum Marianum) in Comparison with Rosuvastatin in Rats by Using Ace-alera® Analyzer


Authors: Fatima Shahin, Eyad Mallah, Reem Emad, Luay Abu-Qatouseh, Wael Abu Dayyih, Feras Darwish El-hajji, Kenza Mansoor, Mona Bostami , Kamal Sweidan, Tawfiq Arafat

Pages: 89-95


Abstract: Recent developments in drug discovery have highlighted the ability of hydroxamic acids to form complexes with various metal ions, in particular iron, zinc, magnesium and calcium, and this imparts them with a number of unique biological and pharmacological properties. This review provides information on the most significant developments of the hydroxamate compounds in the medicinal area with a focus on Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and its derivatives with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antimalarial, antitubercular and anticancer effect and their possible molecular mechanisms. One of the latest favorable developments has been on developing SAHA and its hybrids as potent anti-tuberculosis drugs. Moreover, the combination of the hydroxamic acids with other pharmacophore groups in one molecule can lead to the creation of a huge number of new compounds with promising properties as a multifunctional drug. Also, within the last decade, active research has focused to create these compounds into a class of new antiviral drugs designed to treat influenza, hepatitis C, and other viral infections. Thus, both linear hydroxamic acids and cyclic acids having the uniqueness of the set of bioactive properties, have been compiled here and could be looked forward as the basis for the development of effective drugs and forpilot scale productions through nitrile and amides via chemical and biological transformations using amidase and acyltransferase enzymes. Such synthesis of medicinally significant compounds from amide containing waste derived feedstocks using microbial agents is also a key factor for stimulating bioeconomy.

Title of the Paper: A review on Hydroxamic Acids: Widespectrum Chemotherapeutic Agents


Authors: Zainab Syed, Kumar Sonu, Aman Dongre, Gopesh Sharma, Monika Sogani

Pages: 75-88


Abstract: Recent developments in drug discovery have highlighted the ability of hydroxamic acids to form complexes with various metal ions, in particular iron, zinc, magnesium and calcium, and this imparts them with a number of unique biological and pharmacological properties. This review provides information on the most significant developments of the hydroxamate compounds in the medicinal area with a focus on Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and its derivatives with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antimalarial, antitubercular and anticancer effect and their possible molecular mechanisms. One of the latest favorable developments has been on developing SAHA and its hybrids as potent anti-tuberculosis drugs. Moreover, the combination of the hydroxamic acids with other pharmacophore groups in one molecule can lead to the creation of a huge number of new compounds with promising properties as a multifunctional drug. Also, within the last decade, active research has focused to create these compounds into a class of new antiviral drugs designed to treat influenza, hepatitis C, and other viral infections. Thus, both linear hydroxamic acids and cyclic acids having the uniqueness of the set of bioactive properties, have been compiled here and could be looked forward as the basis for the development of effective drugs and forpilot scale productions through nitrile and amides via chemical and biological transformations using amidase and acyltransferase enzymes. Such synthesis of medicinally significant compounds from amide containing waste derived feedstocks using microbial agents is also a key factor for stimulating bioeconomy.

Title of the Paper: Effective Method of Therapy of Catarrhal Mastitis of Sheep


Authors: A.Yu. Aliev, B.B. Bulathanov, A.S. Barkova

Pages: 70-74


Abstract: The aim of the vark was to study of changes in the structure of the mammary gland in vork after treatment of catarrhal mastitis by preparation dioxinor with combined use of oxytocin and novocain blockade according to D.D. Logvinov. The work was carried out in SEC "Gasan" of Dagestan Republic on the ewes of Dagestan rock, in number of 37 heads with catarrhal mastitis. Three sheep for study of pathoanatomical and histological studies were scored before treatment, and three-after treatment. In sik ewes, a thickening of the mucous membrane of the cistern and large ducts was noted macroscopically, in places with spot-spot hemorrhages, histological studies established dystrophy and necrobiosis of lactocytes, which was accompanied by active desquamation. In the treatment of catarrhal mastitis with a drug dioxinor in combination with oxytocin and novocaine blockade on the seventh day, with a pathoanatomical study, the structure of the mammary gland was normal, and histological examination revealed the formation of a stable recovery process in the mammary gland, manifested in the purification of the alveoli from the exudate, the restoration of the epithelium.

Title of the Paper: Analysis of the Collection of Coriandrum Sativum L. as a Source of High-potential Samples for Selection Research


Authors: S.I. Krivda, N.V. Nevkrytaya, V.S. Pashtetsky, S.S. Babanina, O.B. Skipor, N.S. Krivchik, A.V. Skiba

Pages: 63-69


Abstract: One way for conservation the genetic diversity of plants is to make collections of the samples of different species. Specific collections of species that are used as food, medicinal, industrial crops are usually created in institutions where the studies of their useful properties, selection and seed production are conducted. One of the most common essential oil crops is Coriandrum sativum L. The main direction for coriander selection is the development of varieties with high yield and high content of essential oil. The goal of this research was to study the coriander collection in the conditions of the Crimean Foothills as valuable source material for selection. This collection includes 159 samples from 30 regions obtained from the Federal Research Center “Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources” and 5 varieties from the Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea (RIAC). Analysis of this collection by a set of parameters was carried out in 2017-2019 in accordance with the techniques for essential oil crops. The study was conducted at the experimental site of the RIAC located in Krymskaya Roza village (Belogorsky district, Crimea). The climate of this region is moderately continental. This territory belongs to one of the five agroclimatic regions – upper foothill, warm, not humid enough; to the northern subarea with moderately mild winters. High variability of the collection for the most significant productivity parameters was established. So, coefficients of variation for yield of fruits and for the content of essential oil are 37.2 and 51.3%, respectively. This indicates high potential of further work with this collection in order to develop valuable selection material. Evaluation of the results of studying this collection in years with different weather conditions made it possible to select 26 samples according to the set of parameters or to specific valuable features that were high-potential for further selection.

Title of the Paper: Adaptive Approach in Maize Breeding for the Urals Region


Authors: A. E. Panfilov, N. N. Zezin, N. I. Kazakova, M. A. Namyatov

Pages: 55-62


Abstract: Middle and Southern Urals’ maize growing area is characterised by a wide range of edaphoclimatic conditions and by a variety of factors which may limit growth and development of maize. The factors may vary from severe warmth shortage in the North of the region to sharp aridity in the South. Consequently, fast-ripening maize breeding is dictated by limited heat resources. Depending on the growing area and the purpose of the crops (silage or corn), hybrids adapted for the regions must be characterised within the limits of 110 and 170 according to FAO classification. The purpose of the research is to measure ultra-early maize hybrids’ adaptability within forest-meadow and forest steppe zones of the Middle and the South Urals on maize’s growth stability and ripening, crop productivity and grain moisture at harvest. During the period from 1999 to 2019 experimental hybrid combinations and FAO 100-120 type industrial hybrids were assessed. These hybrids were created with the use of a local maize variety of Northern Caucasia, West Siberia and foothill areas of the Republic of Altay as a source material. Local maize varieties of Northern Caucasia, West Siberia and foothill areas of the Republic of Altay were used as initial material to create these hybrids. As a result of these three research phases early blossom maize varieties’ competitive advantages were discovered. These varieties’ grain formation and grain filling last within a favourable temperature background and have their biological ripeness before diurnal temperature achieves biological minimum required for maize growth. This advantage ensures minimum grain moisture at harvest and maximum genetic potentiality’s productivity implementation thanks to grain filling of full value. This advantage also assures high starch content and highly digestible energy concentration in dry matter. It has been established that ultra-early hybrids’ cultivation is the main condition to obtain high energy fodder in northern areas of the Urals despite of minor gross productivity loss. Commercial maize hybrids F1 Koubanskii 101 SV and Koubanskii 102 MV pass development stages from sprouts to ear corn blossom within the limits of 44 to 58 days depending on the vegetation period conditions. These hybrids’ cultivation in forest-steppe areas is of importance to produce dried and canned corn. Forest-meadow cultivation is of importance to obtain high grain canned products and high energy silage

Title of the Paper: Sensitivity and Resistance of the Microbiota of Reproductive Organs and Mammary Gland of Cows to Anti-microbial Agents in Cases of Inflammation


Authors: N.A. Bezborodova, O.V. Sokolova, I.A. Shkuratova, M.V. Ryaposova, Ya.Yu. Lysova, M.N. Isakova, V.V. Kozhukhovskaya

Pages: 49-54


Abstract: This paper contains the results of complex microbiological studies (culture method, real-time PCR) of biological material from cows affected by inflammatory diseases of reproductive organs and mammary gland. Milk microbiota with underlying subclinical mastitis was represented by pathogenic (S. aureus, enteropathogenic E. coli), opportunistic bacteria (Staphylococcus spp., E. coli, E. faecium, Streptococcus spp., S. agalactiae, P. aeruginosa) and yeast-like fungi of Candida spp. in association. Combined infectious and inflammatory diseases of genital tract and mammary gland in cows resulted in the same types of microorganisms in microflora composition, which confirms information obtained by other researchers on associated microbiota during inflammatory processes. S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, E. faecium, E. faecalis, S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, Bacillus spp., and yeast-like fungi of Candida spp. were obtained from milk samples from cows with acute clinical mastitis and in vaginal washes from cows with acute postpartum endometritis. In the course of defining the sensitivity to antibiotics and identifying genes of antimicrobial resistance, multidrug resistance was established in most part of obtained strains, which should be taken into account when planning treatment measures.

Title of the Paper: Screening of Promising Selection Samples of Alfalfa Variable in Productivity and Longevity


Authors: M. A. Tormozin, A. A. Zyryantseva

Pages: 43-48


Abstract: The article presents the results of studying the numbers of alfalfa variable in breeding nursery (2011-2019 and 2015-2019) on the complex of economically valuable traits. High winter resistance of all varieties was revealed. On average, for three years in the breeding nursery the establishment of 2015-2019 years significantly exceeded the standard number on the seed yield: Victoria — by 70%, CHP-1 — 84%, CHP-2 — 24%, 192-92 (f) — 41%, 213 -11 — 74%. For three years of testing all these promising numbers significantly exceeded the Sarga variety (standard) in seeds yield. On average for three years the yield of green mass was 5.0-20.1 kg/10 m2. According to this indicator the following samples significantly exceed the standard: Victoria — by 20.4%, 213-11 -5.1%, 199-06 — 15.0%. Dry matter collection was 1.08-4.27 kg/10 m2 (standard 3.78 kg/10 m2), excess of 4.5-13.0%. During the longevity test in the breeding nursery of alfalfa (sowed in 2011) the following data was obtained: the seeds yield of breeding numbers in 2019 was 50.0 - 333.3 g from 10 m2. The highest yield was noted in numbers: 20-89N (st), 203-06, 197-06/1, 27-86 (f), 199-06/1, 101-2 (st), 20-89N (st).

Title of the Paper: Variation in PCR Efficiencies between Quantification Standards and Clinical Specimens using Different Real-Time Quantitative PCR Interpretation Methods


Authors: Byung Ryul Jeon

Pages: 39-42

Abstract: The analysis of the Ct and standard curve produced by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a well-established method for the quantification of nucleic acids. However, this method assumes that the PCR efficiency between the unknown specimen and standard is equal, resulting in the possibility of significant inaccuracies due to the presence of inhibitory agents in the unknown specimen. Although numerous methods have been proposed to correct this issue, the understanding of the differences in PCR efficiencies in clinical samples is limited. In this study, 1185 cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA real-time PCR test results from 106 batches were analyzed. The PCR efficiencies were calculated using the cpD2, maxE, Cy0, maxRatio and window-of-linearity (WoL) methods. The concentrations were calculated using the cpD2, Cy0, maxRatio, WoL, and take off point (TOP) methods. The coefficient of variation (CV) in the efficiency of the quantification standards was less than 5% in all methods. Positive samples with high quantification values demonstrated lower PCR efficiency compared to the quantification standards. This suggests possible inaccuracies in quantification using quantification standards in clinical samples.

Title of the Paper: Truncating Mutation in FOXC2 Gene in Familial Hemorrhoids and Varicose Veins


Authors: Janti Qar, Mazhar Salim Al Zoubi, Ibrahim M.A. Baydoun, Alaa A. A. Aljabali, Bahaa Al-Trad, Firas Rabi, Khalid M. Al Batayneh

Pages: 32-38

Abstract: Hemorrhoids and varicose veins are conditions resulting from loss of vascular integrity and, despite being worldwide health concerns, their pathogenesis has not been clearly defined. Many risk factors have been linked to the development of these complications including diet, defecating habits, alcohol consumption and other physiological factors. There are limited studies involving the possible role of genetic mutations in the development of hemorrhoids and varicose veins. FoxC2 is an important transcription factor that plays many roles in a variety of embryonic developmental processes, including angiogenesis. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of the FOXC2 gene variations in the development of familial hemorrhoids and varicose veins in the Jordanian population. Thirty-two samples were collected from eight families manifested hemorrhoids and/or varicose veins conditions. DNA sequencing was performed to screen variation in the FOXC2 gene. Two individuals with severe and early onset of hemorrhoids and varicose veins from the same family showed a frameshift mutation (881'inT) in the coding exon of the FOXC2 gene resulting in a premature stop codon at position +1386 (294 residues truncated peptide). In conclusion, our results support a possible role of genetic predisposition in the development of hemorrhoids and varicose veins with a frequency of 6% in the selected population

Title of the Paper: Project Design of a Device for Express Analysis for Coronaviridae Antigens based on Omron Industrial Programmable Logic Controller


Authors: S.N. Kostarev, O.V. Kochetova, N.A. Tatarnikova, T.G. Sereda

Pages: 21-31


Abstract: Coronaviruses take the lead in gastrointestinal pathologies of animals and are spread all around the world. Causative agents of coronaviruses belong to Nidovirales order, Coronaviridae family which includes 2 subfamilies: Toroviridna (genera Torovirus and Bafinivirus) and Coronaviridna (genera Alphavirus, Betavirus, Gammavirus). Dividing of the latter by genera (groups I-III) was based on serological cross-reactions. Group I includes pathogens causing diseases in animals, such as swine coronavirus, feline infectious peritonitis virus. Group II includes pathogens of veterinary importance, such as BCoV, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, horse coronavirus, viruses infecting mice and rats, as well as human coronaviruses that cause respiratory damage. Group III includes at the moment only avian coronaviruses. Coronavirus got its name in 1968 because of its special structure and appearance – it has spikes which resemble solar corona. In humans, coronavirus was first isolated by D. Tyrrell and M. Bynoe in 1965 from a patient with acute respiratory disease. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002, and then Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012 made specialists significantly increase the level of epidemic danger of coronaviruses. Due to its high virulence, virus multiplication rate in macrophages, pathogen replication, and antibody production increase significantly. At the end of 2019, coronavirus strain 2019-nCoV of Betacoronavirus genus was found in patients with pneumonia in China, and by early 2020 it spread all around the world. In animals, coronavirus leads to damage to mucous membranes. The amount of economic damage associated with disease caused by coronavirus is significant and includes death of animals, decreased meat and dairy productivity, decreased weight gain, culling, loss from abortion and infertility. In this regard, a demand arose for developing project of a device for express analysis for Coronaviridae antigen for the early diagnosis of coronaviruses. Based on the express analysis technique using solid-phase immuno-chromatographic medium, a project for express analysis for Coronaviridae antigen based on Omron industrial programmable logic controller was developed; it includes process chart for equipment, functional diagram and logical equations

Title of the Paper: A Quantification System of Needle Visibility in B-mode Ultrasound with Linear and Curved Transducer


Authors: Hesty Susanti, Arkanty Septyvergy, Suprijanto, Deddy Kurniadi

Pages: 12-20

Abstract: Apart from its usefulness in interventional procedure, ultrasound-guided needle insertion has also crucial problem in terms of needle visibility. The inconsistency of needle visibility is needed to be quantified to evaluate the significance of possible technical factors, e.g., imaging strategies, needle type, and needle-transducer relative position. Needle visibility quantification is important as an initial step before further investigation about fundamental physics behind it and further development of needle visibility enhancement. 20G, 150 mm spinal needle inserted in degassed water phantom is imaged with B-mode Flex Focus 800 BK-Medical using 12 MHz linear transducer and 6 MHz curved transducer. The insertion angles are varied between 15°-70°. The quantified visibility representing each needle position are combined into a comprehensive visibility map covering the whole insertion area. It is also evaluated based on insertion length. The results suggest that both linear and curved transducer, for all insertion angles, the distributions of needle visibility have similar pattern and they are not affected by the insertion length. Practically, this applied method of visibility quantification can be used as specific reference and to predict the distribution of needle visibility limited by the specification of needle and ultrasound system, i.e., range of transducer’s frequency and needle’s size.

Title of the Paper: Dynamic Modeling of Generic Body Temperatures with Mean-Reverting Process and a Martingale Estimation Function


Authors: Hongliang Wang, Shimin Zhang

Pages: 7-11

Abstract: In this paper a stochastic differential equation (SDE) model of generic body temperature (such as axilla, mouth, anus, etc.) fluctuation is developed. We consider a mean-reverting SDE process and use zero-mean martingale estimation function to get the parameters. Subsequently we use data generated from another dynamic model of core body temperature a ground truth for comparison with test our SDE model.

Title of the Paper: Interaction of lysine dendrimer with 8 and 16 molecules of EDR peptide


Authors: V.V. Bezrodnyi, E.I. Fatullaev, S.E. Mikhtaniuk, I.I. Tarasenko, I.M. Neelov

Pages: 1-6

Abstract: Dendrimers are frequently used for drug molecules delivery to different cells or organs. In our previous papers we used computer simulation to study the complex formation between dendrimers and dendrigrafts with different short regulatory peptides. The goal of present paper is to study interaction and the possibility of complex formation between lysine dendrimer and molecules of therapeutic EDR peptide. The system consisting of one lysine dendrimer of the second generation and 8 or 16 therapeutic EDR peptide molecules in water with explicit counterions was studied by computer simulation. The method of molecular dynamics and full atomic model were used for this goal. It was obtained that EDR peptide molecules become adsorbed by lysine dendrimer and form stable complex with it. Structure and conformational properties of this complex were studied. It was demonstrated that formation of complex occurs mainly due to electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged dendrimer and peptide molecules. Such complexes could be used in future for delivery of these or similar peptide molecules to the targeted tissues and organs.