International Journal of Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing

ISSN: 1998-4464
Volume 14, 2020

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 14, 2020

Title of the Paper: Bounds on Complexity when Sorting Reals


Authors: Marcel Jirina

Pages: 276-281


Abstract: A family of multivalue collocation methods for the numerical solution of differen- tial problems is proposed. These methods are developed in order to be suitable for the solu- tion of stiff problems, since they are highly stable and do not suffer from order reduction, as they have uniform order of convergence in the whole integration interval. In addition, they permits to have an effcient implementation, due to the fact that the coeffcient matrix of the nonlinear sys- tem for the computation of the internal stages has a lower triangular structure with one-point spectrum. The uniform order of convergence is numerically computed in order to experimentally verify theoretical results.

Title of the Paper: One-Point Spectrum Nordsieck Almost Collocation Methods


Authors: Dajana Conte, Raffaele D'Ambrosio, Maria Pia D'Arienzo, Beatrice Paternoster

Pages: 266-275


Abstract: A family of multivalue collocation methods for the numerical solution of differen- tial problems is proposed. These methods are developed in order to be suitable for the solu- tion of stiff problems, since they are highly stable and do not suffer from order reduction, as they have uniform order of convergence in the whole integration interval. In addition, they permits to have an effcient implementation, due to the fact that the coeffcient matrix of the nonlinear sys- tem for the computation of the internal stages has a lower triangular structure with one-point spectrum. The uniform order of convergence is numerically computed in order to experimentally verify theoretical results.

Title of the Paper: A Short Review of Some Mathematical Methods to Detect Fake News


Authors: Giuseppe Giordano, Serena Mottola, Beatrice Paternoster

Pages: 255-265


Abstract: In this work we aim to illustrate some mathematical methods recently appeared in the scientic literature to detect fake news. The problem of fake news is an increasingly present topic in our society, from public debate to scien- tic research. The number of fake news produced is constantly increasing especially for the advan- tages of those who spread them. In fact, emotion- ally compelling news, in line with our thoughts, capture our attention, and lead to clicks and views, in the hope of attracting advertising. Un- derstanding whether a news is false or not is not an easy problem to solve, given the large amount of data present on the internet. The detection mechanism should predict the information very quickly in order to stop the spread of fake news. This work is a review of four methods to de- tect fake news recently appeared in the litera- ture [22, 33, 39, 47]. Different methodologies are observed among the various methods: statistical approach, articial neural network, articial in- telligence and text approach. Furthermore, some results are shown.

Title of the Paper: Nonlinear Mechanics Study of Concrete T-beam Bridge With Cracking Damage Based on Numerical Simulation


Authors: Pulu Han

Pages: 249-254


Abstract: The cracking damage of concrete bridge will seriously affect the overall safety of a structure. In this study, based on the numerical simulation, finite element analysis was carried out on the concrete T beam through the ANSYS software, and the selection of elements and the constitutive relationship of materials in the numerical simulation were introduced. It was found from the results of numerical simulation that the cracks of T beam continued to develop under the action of load, the concrete entered the plastic state from the elastic state and the mid-span deflection increased with the increase of load. In the case of the change of cracks, the larger the crack height, the larger the crack range of the beam. With the increase of load, the structural rigidity continued to degenerate, and the compressive stress of the concrete also increased. The research in this paper proves the validity of numerical simulation in the study of nonlinear mechanics of beam bridge and also makes some contributions to the study of crack damage of beam bridge.

Title of the Paper: Circuit Theory Analysis of Parity-Time-symmetric Wireless Power Transfer System


Authors: Yu Jin, Wangqiang Niu, Wei Gu

Pages: 241-248


Abstract: Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology reduces the risks brought by connection between electrical equipment and power source, it has been widely used in various fields in recent years. To overcome issues of low transfer efficiency and poor robustness when coupling coefficient varies, a WPT system based on parity-time (PT) symmetric circuit is proposed, which consists of two RLC oscillators. The system state equation is obtained by circuit theory, then be analyzed to derive the system resonance frequency, transmission efficiency, and phase difference between Tx and Rx. A simulation based on PSIM is established to verify the theoretical derivation of transmission characteristics. The simulation results illustrate that the resonance frequency of the WPT system is adjusted automatically in the strong coupling region when the coupling coefficient changes, the output voltage across the load resistance always equals source voltage on the transmitter. Compared with the non-parity-time symmetric system, PT-symmetric WPT system could achieve higher transfer efficiency over a longer distance, this scheme can transfer power with constant efficiency of over 80% in a certain region. A set of simulations with variation load resistance are considered to verify the system robustness. All results are consistent with theoretical derivation and analysis

Title of the Paper: Factor Analysis Models in Enterprise Costs Management


Authors: G. Bakulina, V. Fedoskin, M. Pikushina, V. Kukhar, E. Kot

Pages: 232-240


Abstract: The process of substantiation, adoption and implementation of a managerial decision requires a lot of analytical work, which is based on the use of various economic calculations. Objective and accurate results of such an analysis are always in demand when developing and justifying managerial decisions. To estimate the impact of factor indicators on the effective feature, various factor analysis techniques have been developed based on such widely used research methods as the chain substitution method and the method of absolute differences. The main advantages of these methods are simplicity, efficiency and easy interpretation of the results. However, most of them do not give an accurate assessment of the influence of factors, since they do not take into account the sequence of replacement of indicators when performing calculations, depending on the degree of their significance. To analyze diversified production the problem arises how to estimate the impact of the composition of produced heterogeneous products on effective economic indicators, such as profit and total costs. Such a situation leads to the implementation of an incorrect production diversification strategy and errors in the formation of an optimal market composition. The article discusses and substantiates ways to eliminate identified problems in the construction of factor models on the example of agricultural production.

Title of the Paper: Isotropy Analysis of Parallel Six-Axis Accelerometer on Circular Hyperboloids


Authors: Chengxin Du, Jiaguo Tang, Chunzhan Yu, Qin Yin, Yili Zheng

Pages: 222-231


Abstract: This paper introduced the isotropic accelerometer using the circular hyperboloids method, which based on modified Gough-Stewart platform (GSP). By the static model of the accelerometer, the isotropy is defined on the acceleration matrix. On the basis of the isotropy condition, the relationship between isotropy index and geometric parameters of circular hyperboloids was investigated. Calculating the isotropy index by the optimization tool, this paper verified that it is feasible to achieve isotropy for the accelerometer. Then taking mass into account, a case is presented to optimize the parameters to construct isotropic accelerometer on circular hyperboloids. According to the 3D model of isotropic accelerometer, the static characteristic simulation was carried out by the finite element method. Based on the simulation experimental results, the calibration matrix was deduced, and the experimental isotropy index was obtained. Comparing the theoretical and experimental isotropy index, the method of circular hyperboloids was proved to be reliable and valid to construct isotropic accelerometer

Title of the Paper: Energy and Mode Filtering in a Graphene Channel With Unevenly Spaced Barriers with a Smooth Profile


Authors: Paolo Marconcini

Pages: 213-221


Abstract: We simulate the transport and shot noise behavior of graphene armchair ribbons with a series of parallel, unevenly spaced potential barriers with a smooth profile (which could result from the electrostatic effect of negatively biased gates). We analyze the effect of Klein tunneling and resonant tunneling on the individual modes propagating through the graphene channel, showing that this structure can behave as a mode and an energy filter for the charges injected from the contacts. Moreover, we study the different transport regimes (ballistic, strong localized, and diffusive) that can take place inside the graphene ribbon and the effect on the shot noise behavior of the device.

Title of the Paper: Markov-Modulated Linear Regression Parameter Estimation Using a Convolution of Exponential Densities


Authors: Nadezda Spiridovska

Pages: 205-212


Abstract: When one applies statistical models, he usually makes the assumption that the data or error come from a normal distribution. In order to verify or to estimate the parameters of the normal distribution, the typical approaches would be normality tests and model selections. In this article, we come up with two methods that could fit the data via normal distribution and measure the fitness. This would serve an alternative for model selection. Unlike statistical approaches - parametric or non-parametric statistics - we use approximation approaches to measure the optimal similarity between a given data set and its induced normal distributions and then search for the optimal normal distribution that has the best similarities. The degree of similarity is defined by two approaches: the overlapped area and the arccos function. The idea is to look at the patterns between data set induced step function and sampled normal distributions in the form of approximated step probability density functions. Our analytical approach could measure the degree of normality, or the similarity with normal distributions, which could then used in pioneering findings for related statistical inferences

Title of the Paper: Two Optimal Measurements of Normality for Finite Set of Discrete Data


Authors: Ray-Ming Chen

Pages: 197-204

Abstract: When one applies statistical models, he usually makes the assumption that the data or error come from a normal distribution. In order to verify or to estimate the parameters of the normal distribution, the typical approaches would be normality tests and model selections. In this article, we come up with two methods that could fit the data via normal distribution and measure the fitness. This would serve an alternative for model selection. Unlike statistical approaches - parametric or non-parametric statistics - we use approximation approaches to measure the optimal similarity between a given data set and its induced normal distributions and then search for the optimal normal distribution that has the best similarities. The degree of similarity is defined by two approaches: the overlapped area and the arccos function. The idea is to look at the patterns between data set induced step function and sampled normal distributions in the form of approximated step probability density functions. Our analytical approach could measure the degree of normality, or the similarity with normal distributions, which could then used in pioneering findings for related statistical inferences

Title of the Paper: Design of On chip Spiral Inductors for Millimeter Wave Frequency Synthesizers


Authors: Nithin M., Harish M. Kittur

Pages: 191-196

Abstract: The energy storing element, inductor plays a vital role in CMOS based high frequency integrated circuits, especially in signal generation and impedance matching blocks.An on chip inductor is considered as a critical component because its performance directly impacts the associated circuitry when it is used as a load device or as a matching element. Out of the various requirements of an inductor which resides inside a chip, the inductance value,quality factor and self resonance frequency with smaller area is often preferred. This paper focuses on the lumped model of inductors for high frequency circuits working in the Millimeter wave region from 30 GHz to 300 GHz. For millimeter wave oscillators,inductance value in the range of pico Henry are essential and hence a complete model of an inductor is presented. Using electromagnetic simulator SONNET, all the parameters are extracted. The extracted model is used in the design of an LC Oscillator for millimeter wave band. A Q factor of 26 is achieved for an inductor value close to 153 pH at 60 GHz.The circuits employing this inductor shows promising results when simulated using 45 nm CMOS pdks

Title of the Paper: A Study of Authenticated Communication Based on Magic Square and Goldbach’s Conjecture


Authors: Hui-Shan Li, Chenglian Liu

Pages: 184-190

Abstract: Although the magic square is a historical and universal study, its progress has been limited, to numeric games, which is closer to digital games or word games, and lacks the connection with mainstream mathematics. Recently, its study has extended from exciting mathematical games to various novel applications, such as image encryption, decryption processing, watermarking solutions, and student group learning problems, or different engineering applications. In terms of employment in information security, it is the blue ocean that requires more innovative research to enrich its content. In this study, we engage the magic square and Goldbach’s Conjecture to develop an innovative method to search prime numbers

Title of the Paper: A Back-stepping Control based on Bounded Function for Four-wheel Drive Omni-directional Mobile Robots


Authors: Jianping Chen, Jianbin Wang

Pages: 175-183

Abstract: As the simply structure and flexible design, back-stepping technique has been widely applied in robot trajectory tracking control. However, there is velocity jumping problem in conventional back-stepping tracking control for four-wheel drive omni-directional mobile robots. In this paper, an improved back-stepping controller based on a bounded function is proposed. To improve control performance, a smooth and bounded tracking velocity, arising from the function, is used to instead of the jumping velocity. Simulation results of tracking different paths and comparison with the conventional back-stepping technique show that the approach is effective, and the system has a good performance with smooth outputs.

Title of the Paper: Diameter Measurement of Cylindrical Products With Displacement Compensation Along the Optical Axis


Authors: V. V. Rakhmanov, S. V. Dvoynishnikov, D. O. Semenov

Pages: 169-174

Abstract: The problem of diameter measurement of cylindrical products using the adapted triangulation method is considered. A method to improve the accuracy of measurement is proposed by determining the displacement of an object in the work area along the optical axis. The description of the layout of the laboratory installation and the results of applying the method for exemplary objects are given.

Title of the Paper: Towards a Dynamic Multi-Agent Based Scaffolding Framework


Authors: Panayotis Papazoglou, Sarantos Psycharis, Konstantinos Kalovrektis

Pages: 160-168

Abstract: Students have different abilities, skills and background and thus the corresponding learning process is different. Moreover, the teacher strategy, the available equipment, etc, play a crucial role in the learning curve. Scaffolding is a learning approach for dynamically supporting student during the learning process. The final goal is to restrict this support and to increase the student autonomy. This paper presents a basic idea for developing a dynamic multi-agent computer based scaffolding framework. Multi-agent technology constitutes an adaptive approach regarding the needed scaffolding. This paper also shows the modelling approach regarding the multi agent concepts. Finally, some theoretical indicative learning paths for different students are presented.

Title of the Paper: Algorithms for Detection Gender Using Neural Networks


Authors: Maksat Kalimoldayev, Orken Mamyrbayev, Nurbapa Mekebayev, Aizat Kydyrbekova

Pages: 154-159

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate two neural architecture for gender detection tasks by utilizing Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) features which do not cover the voice related characteristics. One of our goals is to compare different neural architectures, multi-layers perceptron (MLP) and, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for both tasks with various settings and learn the gender -specific features automatically.

Title of the Paper: A Note on the Cumulative and the Accumulated Hazard Function


Authors: Dejan Škanata

Pages: 149-153

Abstract: In probability and statistics, reliability theory and survival analysis, there exists a 20-year-old dilemma, initially raised by L.M. Leemis, on whether the cumulative or the accumulated hazard function in the discrete domain is more appropriate to be used in various types of applications. Here, we propose that priority should be given to the accumulated hazard function.

Title of the Paper: Model for 1/f Noise in Graphene and in More Common Semiconductors


Authors: Paolo Marconcini

Pages: 144-148

Abstract: Measurements performed on several graphene samples have shown the presence of a minimum of the flicker noise power spectral density near the charge neutrality point. This behavior is anomalous with respect to what is observed in more usual semiconductors. Here, we report our explanation for this difference. We simulate the 1/f noise behavior of devices made of graphene and of more common semiconductors, through a model based on the validity of the mass-action law and on the conservation of the charge neutrality. We conclude that the minimum of the flicker noise at the charge neutrality point can be observed only in very clean samples of materials with similar mobilities for electrons and holes.

Title of the Paper: Discovery of Incomplete Diagnostic Model based on Learning


Authors: Wang Xiaoyu, Li Chuang, Ye Liang

Pages: 137-143

Abstract: The model-based diagnosis uses the common reasoning of offline model and online observation to obtain whether and why faults occur. However, the diagnosis is based on the premise of complete model. Once there are unknown behaviors in the diagnosis process, the diagnosis results will not be obtained. In this paper, a method of incomplete model discovery based on online diagnosis process is proposed: In the online diagnosis process, the data of the complete model are learned and the model is trained and adjusted. When the incomplete behavior is found, the nature of the incomplete behavior is determined according to the historical diagnostic data and online observation data, and the corresponding transition/state/event is generated and added to the model to further obtain the definite diagnosis results.

Title of the Paper: Comparative Analysis of Two Generalized Methodologies for Circuit Optimization


Authors: Alexander Zemliak, Fernando Reyes, Sergio Vergara, Olga Felix

Pages: 131-136

Abstract: The design process for analog network design is formulated on the basis of the optimum control theory. The artificially introduced special control vector is defined for the redistribution of computational costs between network analysis and parametric optimization. This redistribution minimizes computer time. The problem of the minimal-time network design can be formulated in this case as a classical problem of the optimal control for some functional minimization. There is a principal difference between the new approach and before elaborated methodology. This difference is based on a higher level of the problem generalization. In this case the structural basis of design strategies is more complete and this circumstance gives possibility to obtain a great value of computer time gain. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and prospects of a more generalized approach to circuit optimization.

Title of the Paper: Multivariable Constrained Adaptive Predictive Control based on Closed-loop Subspace Identification


Authors: Xiaosuo Luo, Xueshan Lin

Pages: 124-130

Abstract:In order to deal with nonlinear, time-varying, and multivariable constrained characteristics in closed-loop industrial processes, a multivariable constrained adaptive predictive control (CAPC) method based on closed-loop subspace identification is proposed. The state-space model is obtained through the closed-loop subspace identification algorithm, which is regarded as the system model. The algorithm is implemented online to update the R matrix with a receding window. By comparing the prediction errors before and after updating, it considers whether or not to update the system model. The model is then used to design the model predictive controller, which involves the solution of a quadratic program solving multivariable constraints. This paper presents a comparison between the performance of the proposed control method when applied to a 2-CSTR system, and that of an open-loop subspace CAPC method. The superiority of the proposed method is illustrated by the simulation results.

Title of the Paper: A Fast and Efficient Lossless Compression Technique for Greyscale Images


Authors: T. Kavitha, K. Jaya Sankar

Pages: 114-123

Abstract:The growth of cloud based remote healthcare and diagnosis services has resulted, Medical Service Providers (MSP) to share diagnositic data across diverse environement. This medical data are accessed across diverse platforms, such as, mobile and web services which needs huge memory for storage. Compression technique helps to address and solve storage requirements and provides for sharing medical data over transmission medium. Loss of data is not acceptable for medical image processing. As a result, this work considers lossless compression for medical in particular and in general any greyscale images. Modified Huffman encoding (MH) is one of the widely used technique for achieving lossless compression. However, due to longer bit length of codewords the existing Modified Huffman (MH) encoding technique is not efficient for medical imaging processing. Firstly, this work presents Modified Refined Huffman (MRH) for performing compression of greyscale and binary images by using diagonal scanning method. Secondly, to minimize the computing time parallel encoding method is used. Experiments are conducted for wide variety of images and performance is evaluated in terms of Compression Ratio, Computation Time and Memory Utilization. The proposed MRH achieves significant performance improvement in terms of Compression Ratio, Computation Time and Memory Usage over its state-of-the-art techniques, such as, LZW, CCITT G4, JBIG2 and Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) Neural Network algorithm. The overall results achieved show the applicability of MRH for different application services.

Title of the Paper: Near-infrared Spectroscopy Detection Method for Compressive Strength of Fraxinus mandschurica


Authors: Hao Liang, Linyin Xing, Jian Wen, Chao Gao, Jianhui Lin

Pages: 108-113

Abstract: This study used near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a non-destructive test to predict the compressive strength (i.e., modulus of rupture (MOR) and the modulus of elasticity (MOE)) of Fraxinus mandshurica parallel to the wood grain. Tests were conducted with 120 small and clear wood samples to obtain the diffuse NIR reflectance spectra of the radial and tangent surfaces of the wood samples. Standard normal variable transformation (SNV) combined with Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolution smoothing algorithm was used to filter the raw NIR spectra. Uninformative variables elimination (UVE) and a genetic algorithm (GA) were utilized to identify specific wavelengths in the spectra that directly correlated to compression strength. Finally, a partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed with the identified wavelengths to determine the MOR and MOE of the samples. The results showed the correlation coefficients of the prediction models for MOR and MOE were 0.88 and 0.89, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction for MOR and MOE models were 7.37 and 0.49, respectively. Based on these results, it is feasible to accurately estimate the compressive strength of Fraxinus mandshurica (parallel to the grain) using NIR spectroscopy.

Title of the Paper: A Low-cost Webcam-based Eye Tracker and Saccade Measurement System


Authors: Ahmad Aljaafreh, Murad Alaqtash, Naeem Al-Oudat, Jafar Abukhait, Ma’en Saleh

Pages: 102-107

Abstract:Eye movements are integrated with cognitive processes, which indeed make it a helpful research basis for the investigation of human practices. Eye movements can be deployed in discovering several cognitive processes of the brain. This research utilizes low-resolution webcam to develop an eye tracker and saccades measurement tool to extensively lower the gadgets expenses. A consistent algorithm is developed to suit the quality of the webcam using open-source software (Python) to record the time series of the eye location. Likewise, several algorithms are proposed to extract high-level eye movement saccadic measurements from the raw gaze outputs. A pilot study is performed on ten normal participants and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system is quick, simple and efficient for eye tracking and saccade measurement. The developed tool can be used by clinicians and medical physicians for the diagnosis and identification of neurological disorders

Title of the Paper: An Excitation Circuit of the Cell in Optically Pumped Magnetometer


Authors: Chao Wang, Zhijian Zhou, Defu Cheng

Pages: 94-101

Abstract:Cell is the key component in an optically pumped magnetometer. It is necessary to light the cell before measurement and to maintain the illuminated state. The accuracy and stability of magnetic values from the instrument are closely related to the brightness and stability of the cell. The cell is also the largest power dissipation component in the sensor probe, so the overall energy consumption of the magnetometer is highly correlated with it. This paper studies the excitation circuit of cell in the magnetometer. Firstly, we demonstrate the resistivity characteristic of a cell using simulations. After that, based on the combination of signal source impedance and transmission line impedance, the matching network of excitation circuit is analyzed. We demonstrate that both T-network and Π-network can achieve the impedance matching of the transmitter circuit by a simulation experiment, under the condition of 50MHz signal, 10Ω source impedance, and 50Ω transmission line impedance. T-network shows the best performance in frequency selectivity and energy transfer. Finally, the simulation experiment also proves that a circuit composed of a self-coupled coil and an LC parallel resonant network can realize the impedance matching and the passband selection of the receiver circuit by optimizing values of the inductance and capacitance, and turns of the self-coupled coil simultaneously. The power consumption of the whole high-frequency excitation circuit of cell in the optically pumped magnetometer is only about 6W.

Title of the Paper: An Novel Atomic Scalar Magnetometer Using Laser


Authors: Chao Wang, Zhijian Zhou, Defu Cheng

Pages: 88-93

Abstract:The measurement precision of commercial atom scalar magnetometer is relatively backward compared with that of quantum magnetometer. However, the application of quantum magnetometers such as SERF requires more stringent environmental background requirements, which is not suitable for magnetic field measurement in the geomagnetic environment. The purpose of this paper is to design a 4He atom scalar magnetometer using ECDL laser. Compared with the conventional atomic scalar magnetometer, this magnetometer has higher measuring precision and can work normally in the geomagnetic environment. In order to achieve the above goals, the sensitivity formula of the atomic scalar magnetometer is first deduced and calculated, and the key physical factors that directly affect the sensitivity are the optical pumping rate, transverse relaxation rate, and longitudinal relaxation rate. Then, the light source and 4He cell are determined as key components which affect sensitivity. On this basis, the optical path of the 4He atomic scalar magnetometer using laser is designed in this paper. The light path ensures the stability of the laser wavelength of 1083.207nm by the saturation absorption spectrum method, and it ensures the circularly polarized light enters the 4He cell through the combination of various optical components. This paper also studies the electric excitation technology of the 4He cell. And, combined with simulation experiments, the High-Frequency discharge excitation circuit with high energy transfer efficiency and corresponding matching network are determined. Through the optical wavelength meter, it can be determined that the optical path designed in this paper can guarantee the wavelength stability of 1083.207nm for a long time. By analyzing the detection signals of PD, the circularly polarized light enters the 4He cell in the light circuit designed in this paper has a higher degree of polarization. The High-Frequency discharge excitation circuit designed in this paper can light up the cell smoothly, and the input power when the circuit works stably is about 6W. Finally, the static sensitivity of the magnetometer is 5pT/Hz1/2. The 4He atom scalar magnetometer using ECDL laser designed in this paper has high static sensitivity, which basically meets the design requirements, and the instrument can be used normally in the geomagnetic environment. However, the instrument still has a lot of room for improvement, including optical path and cell performance optimization, and we will continue to study in this direction.

Title of the Paper: Blockchain-based Biometric Election System


Authors: Ketevan Tsomaia, Archil Prangishvili, Levan Imnaishvili, Maguli Bedineishvili

Pages: 83-87

Abstract: The use of biometric technology in the electoral process has undoubtedly produced positive results in terms of protecting the electoral process, speeding up the results and enhancing the feeling of objectivity among the voters. But there is still room for falsification of election results, as the number of votes received by the candidates and the used ballot papers are kept centrally. It is also important to ensure the reliability of the templates for the biometric characteristics of the voters. In order to solve these problems, this work proposes the distributed database of key data, in particular, the blockchain storage technology. The electoral process scheme and the blockchain-based biometric election system architecture and protocols are elaborated according to the proposed method.

Title of the Paper: Low-Cost and Ultra-Low-Power Consuming RTUs for Use in IoT Systems


Authors: Ivan Ganchev, Zhanlin Ji, Máirtín O’Droma

Pages: 76-82

Abstract: This paper presents the design and realization of low-cost and ultra-low-power consuming remote transfer units (RTUs), working as communication gateways for collecting, aggregating, and forwarding IoT data to information centers (servers) in the cloud for further processing and data mining. Two types of RTUs, targeting different application scenarios and utilizing different communication standards, were designed – one, based on the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) standard, and another – on the NarrowBand Internet of Things (NB-IoT) standard. The developed RTUs were experimentally tested and their use was successfully demonstrated in different IoT systems.

Title of the Paper: Research on Map Construction and Location of Laboratory Service Robot based on Iterative Closest Point


Authors: Jian Wu, Ruting Yao, Yili Zheng, Jinhao Liu

Pages: 69-75

Abstract: The development of mobile robots has led to their wide application in a variety of fields. This study focuses on the intelligent application of mobile robots in laboratory management, especially the environmental awareness and self-positioning of a robot in the laboratory. In this study, a wheeled mobile robot is selected and equipped with a 2D laser scanner. Based on this, a Robot Operating System (ROS) environment is built. The nearest neighbor iterative closest point (ICP) matching algorithm is utilized to perceive the laboratory service environment, construct the indoor map in real time, and locate the robot precisely. Subsequently, data collected in the corridors and indoor environment of the experimental building are used to test the accuracy of the ICP matching algorithm. The results showed that the minimum translation error is as low as 0.0003 m and that the minimum rotation angle error is less than 0.5°. In addition, the positioning and mapping of the robot were analyzed. The experimental results show that the ICP matching algorithm is well suited to map construction and positioning of the laboratory service robot. This is of great significance for further research on laboratory service robots.

Title of the Paper: Determination the Specific Parameters for Uniform Power Separation of Optical Signals


Authors: Al-Gawagzeh Mohammed Yousef

Pages: 63-68

Abstract: This paper will study the importance of using the features of anisotropic medium to decrease the effect of Attenuation and dispersion on the transmitted signals in the fiber optic system due to the power exchange between waves, a calculation for specific cases were made. Also to determine the half-length of the beat region ξ1 for a certain composition of the spiral single mode optical fibers depending on the parameters of the spiral to construct spiral single mode optical fibers based on photo elasticity. Also in this paper we will try to define specific parameters for uniform power separation of the optical signal

Title of the Paper: Transfer Learning-Based Convolutional Neural Network Image Recognition Method for Plant Leaves


Authors: Yue Zhao,Yili Zheng, Honglei Shi, Lu Zhang

Pages: 56-62

Abstract: To improve the accuracy of plant leaf image recognition with a small dataset of plant leaves, a convolution neural network (CNN) plant leaf image recognition method based on transfer learning is proposed. First, a plant leaf image database was expanded by pre-processing the original plant leaf images through random horizontal and vertical rotation and random zooming. The expanded dataset was then processed by mean removal and divided into training and testing sets at a ratio of 4:1. Second, transfer learning training was performed on the plant leaf dataset using existing models (AlexNet and InceptionV3) that were pre-trained on a large dataset. To ensure these models can be adapted to image recognition for plant leaves, the original parameters of the last fully connected layer were replaced, whereas those of all other convolution layers were retained. Finally, the method proposed in this paper was compared to support vector machine, deep belief network, and CNN through testing on the ICL database. A Tensorflow training network model was used in the comparison test, and the results were visualized by Tensorboard. The testing results showed a considerable improvement in recognition accuracy when using the pre-trained AlexNet and InceptionV3 models, where the training dataset accuracies were 95.31% and 95.4%, respectively.

Title of the Paper: Study and Research the Tensor of Dielectric Permittivity and Attenuation Transient in the Bended on Spiral Optical Fiber


Authors: Al-Gawagzeh Mohammed Yousef, Al-Hadidi Mohammed Rasoul

Pages: 49-55

Abstract: This paper investigates the assumption of spiralshaped index leads to an optimal result for the optical fiber modes. It also shows how to decrease the effect of optical fibers parameters such as attenuation and dispersion on the quality of transmitted signals, and to improve it into an acceptable form. The dielectric permeability tensor εij related to the curvature and torsion parameters ( χ , υ ) in the coordinates system ( r, φ ) was analyzed. The dependence of εij tensor on the bent on spiral optical fiber parameters was mathematically calculated. Also to study the exchange of power between the waves HEo 11 and HEe 11 .The Transient attenuation dependence on spiral parameters of optical fiber with a length of (one kilometer) as a case study will be studied also.

Title of the Paper: On the Prime Geodesic Theorem for SL4


Authors: Dzenan Gusic

Pages: 42-48

Abstract: In 1949, A. Selberg discovered a real variable (an elementary) proof of the prime number theorem. A number of authors have adapted Selberg’s method to achieve quite a good corresponding error term. The Riemann hypothesis has never been proved or disproved however. Any generalization of the prime number theorem to the more general situations is known in literature as a prime geodesic theorem. In this paper we derive yet another proof of the prime geodesic theorem for compact symmetric spaces formed as quotients of the Lie group SL4 (R). While the first known proof in this setting applies contour integration over square boundaries, our proof relies on an application of modified circular boundaries. Recently, A. Deitmar and M. Pavey applied such prime geodesic theorem to derive an asymptotic formula for class numbers of orders in totally complex quartic fields with no real quadratic subfields.

Title of the Paper: A Novel Sliding Mode Controller for Underactuated Vertical Takeoff and Landing Aircraft


Authors: Yu Wang

Pages: 34-41

Abstract: Compared with other control methods, the biggest advantage of using sliding mode variable structure control method lies in its strong robustness which could be used to directly handle the strong nonlinear flight control system. However, this control method requires switching between different switching surfaces, which will inevitably cause buffeting problems, so that the energy consumption increases. Therefore, how to overcome this disadvantage to achieve the superior performance of sliding mode variable structure control method is the current research focus. This paper studies the trajectory tracking of under-actuated VTOL aircraft with three degrees of freedom and two control inputs under various coupling effects. By the input and coordinate transformation, the dynamic equation of the system is transformed into decoupled standard under-actuated form and the sliding mode controller is designed. Then Lyapunov stability theorem is used to derive sliding mode control law which could ensure that the system asymptotically converges to the given trajectory. The simulation has demonstrated the effectiveness of this method

Title of the Paper: Bayesian Change Point Estimation Based on Masked Data in Exponential Distribution Parallel System


Authors: Yuejun Liu, Huaikou Miao

Pages: 28-33

Abstract: Change point reflects a qualitative change in things. It has gained some applications in the field of reliability. In order to estimate the position parameters of the change point, a Bayesian change point model based on masked data and Gibbs sampling was proposed. By filling in missing lifetime data and introducing latent variables, the simple likelihood function is obtained for exponential distribution parallel system under censored data. This paper describes the probability distributions and random generation methods of the missing lifetime variables and latent variables, and obtains the full conditional distributions of the change point position parameters and other unknown parameters. By Gibbs sampling and estimation of unknown parameters, the estimates of the mean, median, and quantile of the parameter posterior distribution are obtained. The specific steps of Gibbs sampling are introduced in detail. The convergence of Gibbs sampling is also diagnosed. Random simulation results show that the estimations are fairly accurate.

Title of the Paper: Approximate Formulas for Zeta Functions of Selberg’s Type in Quotients of SL4


Authors: Dzenan Gusic

Pages: 21-27

Abstract: The goal of the paper is to derive some approximate formulas for the logarithmic derivative of several zata functions of Selberg’s type for compact symmetric spaces formed as quotients of the Lie group SL4 (R). Such formulas, known in literature as Tutchmarsh-Landau style approximate formulas, are usually applied in order to obtain prime geodesic theorems in various settings of underlying locally symmetric spaces.

Title of the Paper: Stability Analysis of Networked Control Systems with Multi-Packet Dropout based on Switched System Approach


Authors: Zijian Dong, Liang Tian, Huanhuan Luo, Guiping Zhou, Li Wang

Pages: 13-20

Abstract: Networked control system models with packet dropout in multi-packet transmission were established under hypothetical conditions in this paper, and the system was seen as a switched system. The causes of packet dropout in networked control system are analyzed in view of single-packet transmission and multi-packet transmission respectively. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the property of the networked control system with multi-packet dropout was analyzed from the point of view of an asynchronous dynamic system. The method which determined the multi-packet dropout boundary to keep the system steady was given. The simulation results show the influences of multi-packet dropout on the system performance and prove the validity of the analytical method proposed in this paper.

Title of the Paper: Identification of Small Unmanned Flying Objects


Authors: Lucjan Setlak, RafaƂ Kowalik

Pages: 7-12

Abstract: Detecting obstacles during the flight and avoiding them is desirable in the case of unmanned aerial vehicles intended for observation of a residential area, refers especially to lightweight micro-aviation vehicles of multi-rotor type, and is also a serious problem because their load capacity is limited, therefore only electronic sensors can be connected to the object. Usually the sensors built into the system are either based on a type vision (monocular or stereo camera) or on a laser camera. However, each of the sensors has its advantages and disadvantages, which is why the article presents the concept of a system for collecting data characterizing the flight of a UAV object and including them in the object identification process. The main purpose of this work is to perform selected studies (analysis, mathematical model, simulations) in the field of identification of small unmanned flying objects. A dynamic model describing UAV motion was developed, which took into account flight parameters using various identification methods. The structure of this work is contained in four chapters, in which, among others, the second chapter deals with the review of existing identification systems for small UAV objects, based on an analysis of the literature on the subject of research. The third chapter covers the issues related to aerodynamics and mechanics of small UAV objects and concerns linear longitudinal equations of UAVs based on Newton's second law. This chapter also describes the algorithm used for dynamic description along with incorrect filtering of "on-line" learning patterns and characterizes the least squares recursive method used for the simulation. Based on the analysis, mathematical models created, simulations performed and the results obtained based on them, practical conclusions presented in the final part of the article were formulated.

Title of the Paper: A Novel Network Flow Prediction Method based on Cuckoo Search Algorithm Optimizing BP Neural Network


Authors: Liqiang Fan

Pages: 1-6

Abstract: Network traffic modeling and forecasting is the basis of network management and security warning. According to the characteristics of the nonlinear network flows, chaos, polygon, etc., in order to improve the prediction accuracy of network traffic, and puts forward the a cuckoo search cable calculation method and BP neural network by network traffic prediction model, BP neural network is used by the network of the learning sample book training, die quasi cloth Valley bird found nest eggs to find the optimal model parameters and the mining network flow number in simulation experiment according to measure the trial model of can. Simulation results show that compared with the reference model, CS-BPNN improves the prediction accuracy of network traffic, network traffic trends are described more accurately, provides a new research tool with network traffic prediction.