International Journal of Biology and Biomedical Engineering

E-ISSN: 1998-4510
Volume 15, 2021

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 15, 2021

Title of the Paper:  Dispersion Relation of Triple-chambered Cochlea


Authors: T. Kitamura

Pages: 412-415

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.47     XML


Abstract: We investigated the dispersion relations of the triple-chambered cochlea separated by the basilar membrane and the Reissner's membrane. The slow waves can propagate on the basilar membrane (basilar membrane mode), and also on the Reissner’s membrane (Reisnner’s membrane mode). Most of the previous studies have focused on the mechanics of vibration of the basilar membrane and there are only a few studies on the wave propagation on Reissner’s membrane. In this study, we focused particularly on the Reissner's membrane mode among the many propagation modes and evanescent modes that the structure supports. We analyzed the dispersion of the Reissner’s membrane mode and the basilar membrane mode, and studied their dependency on the position along the cochlea. We also studied how the distance between the Reissner's membrane and the basilar membrane affects the dispersion relations.

Title of the Paper:  DNA Barcoding of Selected Medicinal Plant Species from Jordan using matK, rbcL, and rpoC1 Genes


Authors: Almuthanna K. Alkaraki, Maisam A. Aldmoor, Jamil N. Lahham, Shreen D. Nusair

Pages: 376-411

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.46     XML


Abstract: Medicinal plants play an essential role in preventing and treating several diseases. Classical taxonomic tools generally carry out medicinal plant identification and characterization. Unfortunately, conventional methods need well-trained taxonomists and could give a false identity for closely related species. Jordanian flora is rich in a variety of plant species. The phylogeographic architecture of Jordanian medicinal plant samples was not explored yet. This study aims to recruit DNA barcoding using matK, rbcL, and rpoC1 genes to identify different selected medicinal plants species from Jordan. These are Maerua crassifolia, Ziziphus spina-christi, Balanites aegyptiaca, Senna italica, and Moringa peregrina. Plant samples were collected from the Dead Sea area (Jordan), and three DNA barcode regions were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed using different bioinformatic tools. Twelve sequences were obtained and deposited in Genbank . These sequences showed a very good discrimination capacity with sequences retrieved from related species. The phylogenetic analysis illustrated that DNA barcoding could successfully identify the selected medicinal plant species using different chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, and rpoC1). Further analysis for other plants species is recommended to explore the genetic relationship and the phylogeographic architecture for Jordanian flora.

Title of the Paper:  The Effect of Valproic Acid on the Transcriptional Activity of Ngf and Bdnf Genes of in Vitro Cultured Neurons Under Oxidative Stress Conditions


Authors: A. D. Filev, E. S. Ershova, E.A. Savinova, A. M. Кalakov, N. N. Veiko, P.E. Umriukhin, S.V. Kostyuk

Pages: 371-375

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.45     XML


Abstract: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a secretory molecule that promotes peripheral neurons synaptic transmission and plasticity by TrkB receptor activation. This is shown in cultured central nervous system (CNS) neurons, including hippocampal and cortical cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Hypotheses suggesting that BDNF may play a potential role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia are based on the key role of BDNF in the synaptic plasticity and, consequently, regulation of cognitive functions. In the schizophrenia treatment valproic acid is used in complex combined therapy regimens. Treatment of schizophrenia patients with valproate increases the BDNF level. Since it is not yet clear whether the BDNF protein levels measured in serum samples and in the brain correlate, we investigated valproate effects on the cultured neurons Bdnf transcription level. The primary neuron-glia culture was obtained from the cerebellum of 8-9-day-old Wistar rats. Valproic acid was added to the neurons (at a concentration of 50 µg/ml), oxidative stress was stimulated by 40 µMof H2O2, and injury was caused by mechanical damage to the neuron culture. It was shown that valproic acid in 3-24 hours increases the transcriptional activity of the Bdnf and Ngf (nerve growth factor) genes 2–2.5-fold (p<0.01) and approximately 1.5-fold (p<0.01), respectively. Mechanical trauma, unlike oxidative stress, activates the transcriptional activity of the Ngf and Bdnf genes (p<0.01). However, under oxidative stress and mechanical damage to neurons, the effect of valproic acid on the Ngf and Bdnf genes expression was insignificant. Fluorescence microscopy analysis using specific antibodies to neurons (anti-Map-2) showed that in the presence of valproic acid, the number of neuronal processes and contacts between them significantly increased. Evidently, valproate addition to antipsychotics can be effective for the overall clinical response. Relatively little research has been done on the signaling pathways in neurons that are activated by the valproic acid. However, we have obtained evidence of activation of the Ngf and Bdnf genes transcription in cultured neurons in vitro. We also found that in the presence of valproic acid, the number of neuronal processes and contacts between them significantly increased. However, we have also found that the oxidative stress accompanying the schizophrenia can significantly reduce the valproic acid effect on the Ngf and Bdnf genes expression. The results of the study may be potentially useful for new schizophrenia therapy strategies development.

Title of the Paper: Internal Picture of the Disease as a Success Factor of Postoperative Neurorehabilitation in Patients with Pituitary Adenoma


Authors: A.M. Domracheva, I. A. Safonova, A. O. Denisenko, D.I. Sozaeva, S.B. Berezhanskaya, A.A. Afonin, I.V. Panova, S.Kh. Dombayan, T.A. Afonina

Pages: 364-370

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.44     XML


Abstract: In order to study the perception of patients operated on for pituitary adenoma, their disease, the types of response to the disease, as well as the influence of the type of internal picture of the disease ((VKB) on the success of the treatment and rehabilitation process, 52 patients (24 men, 28 women) aged from 32 to 46 years old (mean age – 37,7 ± 1,2 years), operated on for pituitary adenoma Analysis of medical records, interviews, assessment of the patient's condition using a number of rating scales and psychodiagnostic techniques to determine the type of attitude to the disease revealed in patients a high level of nosogenic stress reactions and a significant predominance of a maladaptive attitude towards an intrapsychic disease (92,3%). The presence of the dominant maladaptive type of VKB in patients significantly reduces the socio-psychological adaptation in the postoperative period. Under these conditions, in the process of forming a strategy of postoperative neurorehabilitation for the successful restoration of the psychosocial status of patients with pituitary adenomas, it is necessary to take into account the nature of maladaptive personality reactions.

Title of the Paper: Diversity of Fish Species in Several Sites Along the Brantas River East Java Indonesia


Authors: Nuril Ahmad, Luchman Hakim, Catur Retnaningdyah, Bagyo Yanuwiadi

Pages: 355-363

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.43     XML


Abstract: The purpose of this study is to describe the presence of species diversity and composition in Bratas River. Fish sampling was conducted in dry and rainy seasons in five locations, namely Batu City, Blitar City, Tulungagung regency, Jombang Regency, and Mojokerto Regency, East Java. This study collected 295 individual fishes belonging to 12 species. The 162 individuals were obtained in the dry season, while 133 individuals were captured in rainy season. The most dominant species was mujahir (Oreochromis mosambica) followed by keting (Mystus paniceps) and kutuk (Channa striata). The fish abundance significantly varied among study sites, while that of species richness and diversity did not differ significantly. Fish diversity in high elevation was the lowest, while that in relatively middle elevation was the highest. Compared to the previous report, fish species diversity in Brantas was decreasing, some species were not found. Three species were considered as exotic include Oreochromis mosambica, Clarias batracus, Oreochromis niloticus.

Title of the Paper: Influence of Foot Progression Angle on Center of Pressure During Stair Ascending in Subjects With Chronic Ankle Instability


Authors: Jung-Hyun Ban, Tae-Ho Kim

Pages: 350-354

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.42     XML


Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the center of pressure during stair ascending in subjects with chronic ankle instability while different angles of foot are applied. The subjects of this study were 20 male and female adults with chronic ankle instability were selected from among the employees of D Hospital in Daegu Metropolitan City. The criteria for selection of subjects with chronic ankle instability were those who felt wobbling in the ankle joint and scored not higher than 24 points in a test using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT). The subjects carried out stair ascending in neutral, toe-in and toe-out postures, respectively, and changes in the center of pressure (COP) were compared and analyzed. The results of this study, no statistically significant difference appeared in the comparison between the toe-in posture and neutral posture or between the neutral posture and the toe-out posture but medial/lateral movements of the center of pressure showed significant differences between the toe-in and toe-out postures. In addition, the total travel range and the moving range of the center of pressure, the average velocity, and the anterior/posterior movements of the center of pressure showed no statistically significant difference among all three postures. As a result, it could be seen that when adults with chronic ankle instability climb the stairs, the toe-in posture reduce the medial/lateral movements of the center of pressure thereby increasing the stability of the ankle and effectively preventing re-injuries.

Title of the Paper: Search for the Optimal Model of Institutional Capacity to Counteract Infectious Threats in the Modern World


Authors: Oleksandr T. Zyma, Olha M. Soloviova, Iryna V. Boiko, Valentyna A. Somina, Yuliia V. Mekh

Pages: 342-349

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.41     XML


Abstract: Epidemiological surveillance of public health is an important tool for protection against viral and infectious diseases, both at the national and international levels. Its key role is played by such components as prevention, sanitary protection, compulsory vaccination, audit of the epidemic situation, special anti-epidemic measures, etc. Their implementation requires a systematic approach, which can only be ensured by professional, balanced, and scientifically sound public administration in the field of public health, including on the international scale. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed a number of issues related to public administration in healthcare and epidemiological surveillance. In this article, the authors analyse the world experience of building systems that ensure sanitary and epidemiological well-being, and try to assess its impact on the effectiveness of counteracting epidemiological threats. In the course of the study, the authors investigated the structure of the system of anti-epidemic and sanitary bodies of more than forty countries of the world. The authors have left out countries with a small population (because they are characterised by universalisation, multifunctionality of public administration entities) and countries whose statistics on the spread of COVID-19 are questionable. For others, it was possible to identify three main approaches to building a system of sanitary and anti-epidemic bodies and to propose appropriate models of the institutional mechanism of public administration in the field of epidemiological well-being.

Title of the Paper: Continuous Dynamic Mapping of Cranial Nerve Pathways and Long Tracts Inside the Brainstem: Useful Technique of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring


Authors: Volodymyr I. Smolanka, Andrey V. Smolanka, Oleksandr S. Sechko, Olga S. Herasymenko

Pages: 334-341

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.40     XML


Abstract: Surgery of intrinsic brainstem lesions is extremely dangerous, consequently the knowledge of anatomy and safe entry zones is extremely important. The technological progress was achieved with the widespread clinical use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) which has proven to further improve the safety of operating on intrinsic brainstem lesions. The relevance of the study is conditioned by the fact that the tumor alters the normal anatomy and distorts the location of well-known landmarks and structures. In this regard, this paper is directed at identification of the placement of conductive pathways in the thickness of the brain stem and directly in the depth of the lesion (in the tumor or cavern), respectively to the surgical manipulations aimed at injury prevention. The results were achieved by a retrospective review of medical reports. The paper represents the results of surgical treatment of 42 patients with brainstem lesions, reviews the localization of the lesion and neurological status of patients, describes available methods of intraoperative monitoring (IOM) and on-line techniques for the brainstem surgery. The materials of the paper are of practical significance for the development of brainstem surgery with IONM modifications for wider and more comfortable use by neurosurgeons.

Title of the Paper: Methods for Improving the Efficiency of Diagnostic Systems in the Neural Network-based Sound Analysis


Authors: Denis V. Panaskin, Yelyzaveta O. Bilokon, Oleksii O. Piddiachyi

Pages: 325-333

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.39     XML


Abstract: The study of the possibilities of modelling the use of neural networks while increasing the efficiency of diagnostic systems consists of creating a standard that would satisfy the conditions for maintaining the sound quality. At the same time, the effectiveness of diagnostic systems can be considered when applied both in a technological environment and in a virtual space. The relevance of the study is determined by the possibilities of using the reference sound, which forms and uses the basis of the neural networks. The scientific novelty of the study is determined by the fact that an adaptive method for creating standards of units of measurable quantities with specified accuracy characteristics is proposed, subject to limited resources. The first version of the mathematical model of the measurement procedure is formed during reproduction, storage and transmission of a unit of measurement developed on the basis of a physical model, which, in turn, is built in accordance with a priori information on the principle of reproduction (storage and transmission) of a unit of measurement, a list of informative parameters and influential quantities when measuring. The authors have developed the necessary accuracy characteristics, specified by the technical specifications and determined the resources allocated for the creation of the standard. The practical significance of the study lies in the establishment of distributed networks for sound quality measurement, mainly within the structures of the study of sound transmission between high-tech devices.

Title of the Paper: Our Experience in the Treatment of Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency due to Cervical Spine Disorders


Authors: Beslan S. Dzhilkashiev, Gennadiy I. Antonov, Gennadiy E. Chmutin, Keith Simfukwe, Edward R. Miklashevich

Pages: 318-324

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.38     XML


Abstract: This article defines vertebra-related causes of vertebrobasilar insufficiency in patients with the signs of tortuosity of segment VI of the VA. The aim of this study is to present the results of diagnostics of discirculatory phenomena in the vertebrobasilar system and to show their importance for differentiated surgical treatment of stenotic lesions of segment V1 of VA in pathological disorders of cerebral circulation in the VBS caused by osteochondrosis of the cervical spine. The following traditional methods are used in diagnostics: Doppler ultrasonography, multispiral computed tomography with contrast enhancement. Also using developed by the author method for determining VA reactivity and circulatory insufficiency in the vertebrobasilar system (VBS). Based on our methodology and criteria, patients were selected for different types of surgical treatment with clinical outcome prediction following interventions on the arteries of the VBS. To determine the pathologies of the intracranial segments of the vertebral and basilar arteries, taking into account the pathways of collateral compensation in the VBS, cerebral angiography is recommended before surgery on the arteries of the VBS. Reconstructive techniques used on segment VI of the VA will predictably show the best long-term clinical results. The excision of a tortuous segment VI of the VA may be effective in obtaining reliable results of successful interventions in the early postoperative period. The conservative treatment of the patients with multiple VBD lesions is possible. early outcomes of their use are satisfactory.

Title of the Paper: New Approaches to the Surgical Treatment of Lung and Bronchial Tumors in Children


Authors: Oleg V. Bilokon, Elen V. Shaida, Petro P. Sokur, Borys O. Kravchuk

Pages: 311-317

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.37     XML


Abstract: Today, it is relevant to search for new, better methods of surgical treatment of tumors and organ-preserving and video-assisted surgery is gaining more and more popularity. The aim of the study was to improve the results of surgical treatment of children with primary and secondary (metastatic) lung tumors using high-frequency live tissue welding (HF LTW) in order to increase the treatment effectiveness. Novelty of the study lies in the expanding the knowledge of the new researched method, for enhancement of survivability relatively to chemotherapy and radiation methods, that are studied in the previous works. Advantages of the introduced method are bloodless, fast, low traumatic operations 103 case reports in children with primary and metastatic lung tumors were analyzed, including 34 patients with benign and malignant lung tumors and 69 children with metastatic bronchial and pulmonary lesions undergoing treatment from 2002 to 2018 were examined. Benign lung tumors were diagnosed in 17 patients. Malignant tumors were observed in 17 patients, including 11 lung carcinoid tumors. Metastatic bronchial and pulmonary lesions most often occurred with osteosarcoma (28) and nephroblastoma (17). In 34 children with primary tumors, 37 were undergone surgical interventions. Most often, atypical resection was used – 16 (43.3%), in particular, with carcinoid – in 7 (43.8%) patients and with hamartoma – in 4 (25%) patients. In metastatic lesions, in most cases, the same resection was performed. From 58 resections 25 (43%) were performed for osteosarcoma and 15 (26%) for nephroblastoma. The HF LTW method was used in 29 patients for benign and malignant primary tumors and in 62 (73%) surgical procedures for lung metastases to remove a tumor, vascular coagulation and sealing of the lung tissue. Using HF LTW surgical operations of different directions and volumes can be performed effectively in benign, malignant and metastatic bronchial and pulmonary lesions in children.

Title of the Paper: Gradient, Texture Driven Based Dynamic-Histogram Equalization For Medical Image Enhancement


Authors: Vidyasaraswathi H. N., Hanumantharaju M. C.

Pages: 303-310

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.36     XML


Abstract: In many clinical diagnostic measurements, medical images play some significant role but often suffer from various types of noise and low-luminance, which causes some notable changes in overall system accuracy with misdiagnosis rate. To improve the visual appearance of object regions in medical images, image enhancement techniques are used as potential pre-processing techniques. Due to its simplicity and easiness of implementation, histogram equalization is widely preferred in many applications. But due to its mapping function based image transformation during enhancement process affect the biomedical patterns which are essential for diagnosis. To mitigate these issues in medical images, a new method based on gradient computations and Texture Driven based Dynamic histogram equalization (GTDDHE) is accomplished to increase the visual perception. The spatial texture pattern is also included to ensure the texture retention and associated control over its variations during histogram modifications. Experimental results on MRI, CT images, eyes images from medical image datasets and quantitative analysis by PSNR, structural similarity index measurement (SSIM), information entropy (IE) and validated that the proposed method offers improved quality with maximum retention of biomedical patterns across all types of medical images.

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Performance Metrics of Thyroid Segmentation by Deep Learning Technique


Authors: Nayana R. Shenoy, Anand Jatti

Pages: 298-302

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.35     XML


Abstract: Thyroid cancer is one of the commonly seen endocrine system cancer. Thyroid nodules appear as solid or fluid-filled masses on the thyroid. In many cases the thyroid nodules do not show any symptoms and due to this it leads to the critical situation up to death.All nodules are not cancerous and so it is very important to discriminate benign from malignant nodules. For diagnosing thyroid nodule the preferred imaging modality isUltrasound imaging.Due to inhomogeneous structure segmenting thyroid gland is a great challenge.Most of the researchers have implemented semi-automatic and automatic techniques to segment the nodules. In this paper we suggest a model to segment the region of interest by modifyingthe basic U-Netmodel. The performance metrics such as true positive, accuracy, F1-measure and dice coefficient is calculated and compared with basic model.

Title of the Paper: Information Sources, Knowledge and Practice Towards HIV/ Hepatitis B Co-Infection In Lagos, Nigeria


Authors: Evaristus Adesina, Oladokun Omojola, David Imhonopi, Babatunde Adeyeye, Charity Ben-Enukora, Scholastica Anake

Pages: 285-297

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.34     XML


Abstract: Attaining the objective of healthy lives and wellbeing Sustainable Development Goal 3 is hinged on effective health communication. This study investigates the information source usage, knowledge, attitude and practices of 200 dwellers of Lagos, Nigeria towards HIV/HBV co-infection. In this cross-sectional study, the simple random sampling method was employed in selecting 200 participants in the most populated local government in Lagos state, Nigeria. Questionnaire instrument was created, to elicit responses on four major areas: uses of information sources, knowledge, attitude, health practice towards HIV/HBV co-infection. Descriptive statistical data in percentages and cross-tabulations were employed. The study indicated that 60.4% of the respondents source for information on HIV/HBV co-infection on television. Furthermore, while 60% noted the co-infection is caused by a virus 48.5% declared that the fear of death will be their main concern if they were diagnosed with the co-infection. The result further reveals that only 26.8% of the sampled respondents have been tested for the co-infection in Lagos State. The study concludes that there is need for the creation of preventive information campaigns for awareness in order to mitigate the rising cases of HIV/HBV co-infection as well as influence persons towards healthy practices. The insight from this study would further provide a focal point of direction to government as well as non-governmental organisations working on HIV/HBV co-infection in Nigeria.

Title of the Paper: Importance of Some Specifications of Heterogeneous Architectures (CPU+GPU) for 3D Cone-Beam-CT Image Reconstruction using OpenCL


Authors: T. Nouioua, A. H. Belbachir

Pages: 275-284

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.33     XML


Abstract: Medical imaging has found an important way for routine daily practice using cone-beam computed tomography to reconstruct a 3D volume image using the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm. This way can minimize the patient’s time exposure to X-rays. However, its implementation is very costly in computation time, which constitutes a handicap problem in practice. For this reason, the use of acceleration methods on GPU becomes a real solution. For the acceleration of the FDK algorithm, we have used the GPU on heterogeneous platforms. To take full advantage of the GPU, we have chosen useful features of the GPUs and, we have launched the acceleration of the reconstruction according to some technical criteria, namely the work-groups and the work-items. We have found that the number of parallel cores, as well as the memory bandwidth, have no effect on runtimes speedup without being rough in the choice of the number of work-items, which represents a real challenge to master in order to be able to divide them efficiently into work-groups according to the device specifications considered as principal difficulties if we do not study technically the GPU as a hardware device. After an optimized implementation using kernels launched optimally on GPU, we have deduced that the high capacities of the devices must be chosen with a rough optimization of the work-items which are divided into several work-groups according to the hardware limitations.

Title of the Paper: AtDREB2A Gene Expression Under Control of the Inducible Promoter and Virus 5’-untranslated Regions Improves Tolerance to Salinity in Nicotiana Tabacum


Authors: O. Karpova, A. Alexandrova, R. Nargilova, M. Ramazanova, R. Kryldakov, B. Iskakov

Pages: 260-274

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.32     XML


Abstract: Transcriptional factor DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN 2A (DREB2A) induces the expression of many genes in dehydration, heat shock, and salinity in Arabidopsis. Deletion of sequence coding the 30 amino acid central region transforms full length (FL) protein DREB2A FL into a more stable and constitutively active form known as DREB2A CA. Here, using agrobacteria, a leaf disc transformation of Nicotiana tabacum v. Samsun NN was carried out by transgenes AtDREB2A-FL and AtDREB2A-CA coding the proteins with His-tag on the С-end. The effects of combinations of constitutive 35S CaMV promoter or inducible rd29A promoter with different viral or artificial 5’-untranslated regions (UTR), 5’TMV, 5’PVY, 5’AMV or 5’ARC1, known as translational enhancers were evaluated on the both transgenes’ expression. Using an antibody to His-tag, recombinant protein synthesis was detected in transgenic plants in normal and heat shock conditions. After comparative analysis, it was shown that the properties of different 5’-UTRs vary greatly and depended on separate conjunction of promoter and transgene. The integration of AtDREB2A CA under control of the rd29A promoter and 5’TMV or 5’AMV in genome effectively improved tolerance of tobacco transgenic plants to 400 mM NaCl and to drought.

Title of the Paper: Geographic Classification and Identification of SARS-CoV2 from Related Viral Sequences


Authors: Fayroz. F. Sherif, Khaled. S. Ahmed

Pages: 254-259

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.31     XML


Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced to mild the risks of deadly epidemic-prone illnesses sweeping our globalized planet. The pandemic is still going strong, with additional viral variations popping up all the time. For the close to future, the international response will have to continue. The molecular tests for SARS-CoV-2 detection may lead to False-negative results due to their genetic similarity with other coronaviruses, as well as their ability to mutate and evolve. Furthermore, the clinical features caused by SARS-CoV-2 seem to be like the symptoms of other viral infections, making identification even harder. We constructed seven hidden Markov models for each coronavirus family (SARS-CoV2, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV), using their complete genome to accurate diagnose human infections. Besides, this study characterized and classified the SARS-CoV2 strains according to their different geographical regions. We built six SARS-CoV2 classifiers for each world's continent (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America, and Australia). The dataset used was retrieved from the NCBI virus database. The classification accuracy of these models achieves 100% in differentiating any virus model among others in the Coronavirus family. However, the accuracy of the continent models showed a variable range of accuracies, sensitivity, and specificity due to heterogeneous evolutional paths among strains from 27 countries. South America model was the highest accurate model compared to the other geographical models. This finding has vital implications for the management of COVID-19 and the improvement of vaccines.

Title of the Paper: The State of the Cardiovascular System Under the Action of Industrial Electromagnetic Fields


Authors: G. V. Gazya, V. V. Eskov, M. A. Filatov

Pages: 249-253

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.30     XML


Abstract: The influence of industrial low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the human body is currently insufficiently studied. However, such fields are quite common in modern automated production, where various electric drives are used, and they significantly affect the quality of human life. This is especially evident in the conditions of the North, where special ecological factors cause significant changes in the systems of regulation of the body's functions. This study examines the influence of such fields on the parameters of the cardiovascular system of female workers in the oil and gas industry in Russia. Four groups of women were studied, differing in age and electromagnetic field exposure. As a result, the effects of influence of the fields were revealed, especially for the older age group.

Title of the Paper: Biochemical Blood Parameters and Mineral Metabolism in the Adaptive Period in the Bovine Cattle in the Conditions of the Voronezh Region


Authors: A. V. Vostroilov, I. Y. Ventsova, V. A. Safonov

Pages: 244-248

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.29     XML


Abstract: The study of the process of adaptation of the Belgian breed bovine cattle to the conditions of the Voronezh Region was based on the biochemical blood parameters and mineral metabolism. The experiment included 20 animals divided into four groups (five heads in each group): Group I – covering age heifers, Group II – heifers, Group III – first-calf cows a month after calving, Group IV – one-month-old heifers. In some groups, adaptation processes resulted in deviations from the reference values. In Group II, the level of BUN was 4.7% higher than the norm. In Groups I and IV, the levels of glucose were higher by 7.6% and 38.5%, respectively. In Groups II and III, ALT levels were higher than the norm by 9.1%; in Group I – by 15.7%. In Group II, the level of AST was higher by 5.8% in comparison with the norm. The analysis of mineral metabolism showed that the content of iron was lower than the reference values in first-calf cows in Group III and in heifers in Group IV by 14.4 and 10.8%, respectively. In Group II, the content of copper met the upper border of the reference values. In Group IV, it was elevated by 18.2% in comparison with the norm. The specified deviations indicated the intensification of the metabolic processes during the adaptation of animals to new conditions. The study results showed that the animals of the Belgian breed were capable of adaptation, which provided successful adaptation to new conditions of the Voronezh Region (Russia).

Title of the Paper: The Effects of PNF Pattern Training on the Walking Ability of Total Knee Replacement Patients


Authors: Jin Park

Pages: 240-243

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.28     XML


Abstract: The purpose of this study was to verify the effectiveness of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation pattern to improve walking ability of total knee replacement patients. In this study, 10 patients with total knee replacement were recruited from rehabilitation hospital. They were divided into two groups: a PNF group (n=5) and a control group (n=5). The PNF group received 30 minutes of continuous passive motion (CPM) and PNF training for 15 minutes five times a week for two weeks. The control group received 30 minutes of CPM and strengthening exercise for 15minutes five times a week for two weeks. Spatiotemporal parameters were measured by Biodex gait trainer 2. After the training periods, the PNF group showed a significant improvement in walking speed and step length on the non-operated side, time on each foot on the operated side (p<0.05). The results of this study showed that PNF pattern training was more effective at improving walking ability. Therefore, improve the walking ability of total knee replacement patients, PNF lower pattern should be considered.

Title of the Paper: Effect of Dynamic Stereoscopic Vision on Balance with Induced Anisometropia


Authors: Taeho Jun, Joong-Hwi Kim

Pages: 234-239

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.27     XML


Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between dynamic stereoscopic vision and balance, and to compare our results to previous studies that sought to determine the correlation between changes in visual information and balance. Thirty-three healthy adults participated in the measurement of balance by inducing anisometropia with +0.0D, +2.0D, and +5.0D refractive lenses placed in specially made glasses that removed peripheral vision. COP data was collected via force plate and was evaluated by converting it to COP velocity. An α <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Our results show that, provided it is above a minimum threshold level, the greater the change in dynamic stereoscopic vision, the poorer the balance. And it was found that changes below a minimum threshold level did not affect the balance. These results provide a potential explanation for the complementary compensatory action of sensory information, which could not be explained previously based on the change of balance due to changes in visual information across both eyes. Given these data, it seems clear that vision correction is essential for those affected by dynamic stereoscopic vision formation disorders above a certain level in order to improve balance. On the other hand, dynamic stereoscopic vision formation disorders below a certain level can likely be improved using simple somatosensory treatments. This study will help physical therapists better consider dynamic stereoscopic vision when evaluating and conducting therapies designed to increase balance.

Title of the Paper: Changes in Red Blood Cell Membrane Properties: The Role of Metabolic Syndrome Components


Authors: Yu. G. Birulina, I. V. Petrova, V. V. Ivanov, E. E. Buyko, R. R. Shaibekova, A. V. Grigoreva, I. V. Kovalev, A. V. Nosarev, S. V. Gusakova

Pages: 228-233

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.26     XML


Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic, hormonal and hemodynamic disorders that contribute to a change in the structural and functional status of erythrocytes and contribute to dysregulation of their cation transport function, where Ca2+ -dependent potassium channels (KCa channels) play an important role. A MetS model was performed using male Wistar rats, which were divided into control and experimental groups. Rats in the control group were fed standard rat chow. Rats in the experimental group were exposed to a high-fat and high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet for 12 weeks. The data obtained indicate that the HFHC diet led to obesity, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia. The level of glutathione (GSH) decreased in the erythrocytes of rats suffering from MetS, but the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased. It was shown that the amplitude of the membrane potential of erythrocytes of rats with MetS changed depending on the acting agent: when stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187 it decreased, when the redox system ascorbat – phenazine methosulfate was used, it increased compared to the control group. The data obtained indicate that a HFHC diet leads to changes in the physical and chemical properties of the erythrocyte membrane

Title of the Paper: Soil Infiltration Management on Perspective of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)


Authors: Harry Susanto, Eko Ganis Sukoharsono, Bambang Hendroyono, Amin Setyo Leksono

Pages: 219-227

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.25     XML


Abstract: UB Forest is a Forest Area with Special Purpose (KHDTK) located on the slopes of Mount Arjuno. Before being managed by the University of Brawijaya, there was a change in land cover from natural forest to pine and mahogany production forest. This change was a result of the PHBM (Collaborative Forest Management) contract agreement between Perhutani and the community to carry out agricultural management. The input of organic matter with different quality and quantity will affect the organic matter content and in turn will affect the physical properties of the soil such as bulk density, density and soil porosity. Soil porosity is a physical property of soil that affects soil infiltration. The objective of this study is to identify and analyze the management of Forest Areas and to build a green economy model in the management of KHDTK University of Brawijaya Forest in the Perspective of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Malang Regency. The method used in this research is qualitative research. Implementation of green economy model in the management of KHDTK University of Brawijaya Forest in the concept of forestry sector contribution related to climate change; the concept of sustainable forest resource management; and the concept of environmental service providers. The results of the infiltration measurement using the single ring infiltrometer method can better describe the infiltration that occurs in the soil. The highest soil infiltration is in protected areas with a soil infiltration rate of 131.33 cm/hour (single ring infiltrometer). Meanwhile, the lowest infiltration was found in the pine production forest plot overlaid with seasonal crops with a soil infiltration rate of 12 cm/hour (single ring infiltrometer).

Title of the Paper: Distribution of Polymorphic Marker of Genes of the Renin-angiotensin System RAS (AGT, AGTR1, АСЕ), ITGB3, PPARG) in Patients with Essential Arterial Hypertension Depending on the Nature of the Nocturnal Decrease of BP


Authors: T. Yu. Zotova, M. M. Azova, A. A. Lukanina, A. Ait Aissa, M. L. Blagonravov

Pages: 212-218

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.24     XML


Abstract: A clinical-genetic study using ABPM (24-hour BP monitoring) and Holter’s ECG methods in 49 pa-tients with essential arterial hypertension (group 1: 17 patients without sufficient nocturnal BP de-crease СI≤10%, and group 2: 32 patients with suf-ficient nocturnal BP decrease СI≥10%,) was per-formed for comparative analysis of the genotype frequencies of ACE, AGT, AGTR1, ITGB3, and PPARG. The study was conducted in order to clari-fy the pathogenetic mechanisms of the implementa-tion of different dynamics of nocturnal blood pres-sure in patients with hypertension without metabol-ic syndrome. It was found that in group 1, protec-tive genotype II of the ACE gene was more com-mon (p ≤ 0.025) than in the population data. A sig-nificant increase (p ≤ 0.025) in the frequency of the CC genotype of the AGTR1 gene responsible for the formation of insulin resistance compared to the population data was combined with a significant increase in the frequency of autonomic dysfunction in patients of group 1 - 83.4% vs. 64.5% group 2 respectively. The results obtained indicate the pos-sible pathogenetic links between genetically deter-mined insulin resistance and autonomic nervous system dysfunction and allows us to determine therapeutic approaches for correcting the noctur-nal blood pressure profile.

Title of the Paper: The Impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health


Authors: Donart Koci, Festina Morina, Fatlinda Hoxhaj, Antigona Ukëhaxhaj

Pages: 202-211

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.23     XML


Abstract: Infection with the new coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The virus that causes COVID-19 spreads easily among humans and more continues to be detected over time as to how it spreads. The effect that this crisis will have on the mental health of the population, both in the short and long term, is unknown. In the acute phase, fears of possible exposure to infection, loss of employment, and financial strain are likely to increase psychological distress in the wider population. In the long run, grief and trauma are likely to appear as financial and social impacts become ingrained, the risk of depression and suicide may increase. Lack of hugs, handshakes, free movement and isolation have made it impossible for people to socialize and behave normally with each other. Anxiety, fear, insecurity and lack of self-confidence are some of the main problems that people faced during quarantine and that they may face after the release of the measures. The purpose of this paper is to prove how much the Pandemic and the situation with COVID-19 have affected the mental health of the population in the city of Prizren and Gjakova. Quantitative study method was used for the realization of this work. This paper is based on the data extracted from the questionnaire completed together with the citizens of the municipalities of Prizren and Gjakova. For the realization of this scientific research are involved 200 citizens. Age groups, gender, economic status, level of education and place of residence were analyzed. The study included people aged 20 to 50 years. The most included gender in the study is the female with 59% while the male gender with 41%. All results are presented in graphs worked with SPSS program.

Title of the Paper: An Artificial Intelligence Approach based on Hybrid CNN-XGB Model to Achieve High Prediction Accuracy through Feature Extraction, Classification and Regression for Enhancing Drug Discovery in Biomedicine


Authors: Mukesh Madanan, Biju T. Sayed, Nurul Akhmal Mohd Zulkefli, Nitha C. Velayudhan

Pages: 190-201

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.22     XML


Abstract: In the field of biomedicine, drug discovery is the cycle by which new and upcoming medicines are tested and invented to cure ailments. Drug discovery and improvement is an extensive, complex, and exorbitant cycle, settled in with a serious extent of vulnerability that a drug will really be successful or not. Developing new drugs have several challenges to enrich the current field of biomedicine. Among these ultimatums, predicting the reaction of the cell line to the injected or consumed drug is a significant point and this can minimize the cost of drug discovery in sophisticated fashion with a stress on the minimum computational time. Herein, the paper proposes a deep neural network structure as the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to detain the gene expression features of the cell line and then use the resulting abstract features as the input data of the XGBoost for drug response prediction. Dataset constituting previously identified molecular features of cancers associated to anti-cancer drugs are used for comparison with existing methods and proposed Hybrid CNNXGB model. The results evidently depicted that the predicted model can attain considerable enhanced performance in the prediction accuracy of drug efficiency.

Title of the Paper: Predictive Analytics on Academic Performance in Higher Education Institution during COVID-19 using Regression Model


Authors: Muhammad Farezuan Zulkri, Shazlyn Milleana Shaharudin, Noor Azrin Abdul Rajak, Muhammad Safwan Ibrahim

Pages: 184-189

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.21     XML


Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in December 2019 had a ected the way of living for people around the world including students in educational institutions. These students had to prepare for the continuity of their study mentally and physically by adapting to the online teaching and learning approach, which can signi cantly impact their academic performance. Hence, this study examines the students' academic performance on the online teaching and learning approach, thus predicting their academic performance for the upcoming semester. This study enables various actions to be taken in improving and maintaining the student's performance in their study activities. The study was conducted on undergraduate students from the Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris. This paper presents the prediction of the student's academic performance with a linear regression model. Evidently, the result shows that the student's academic performance continually improves while adapting to the online teaching and learning approach. It also shows that there were few respondents affected while adapting to this new norm approach. Hence, the future development of the regression model can be improved by having a more comprehensive range of Malaysian universities' data.

Title of the Paper: Characteristic of Microphyta Distribution of Pager River, Central Kalimantan


Authors: Inga Torang, Sulmin Gumiri, Ardianoor, Adi Jaya

Pages: 170-183

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.20     XML


Abstract: Environmental damage due to natural resource extraction, especially in watershed areas, seems to be of increasing concern and so far, from the aspect of aquatic and water resources, plankton is commonly used as an indicator of environmental damage. This study explores the distribution of microphyta as a parameter of environmental damage. The research was conducted in Pager watershed, Central Kalimantan and sampled at 2 (two) stations, namely station A (for the right side of the river) and station B (for the left side of the river). The study was conducted 13 sampling times, which began in the period 25 May 2019 ending until 9 November 2019. Laboratory analysis to identify the type and number of microphyta was carried out at the Palangka Raya University Laboratory. The results showed that the number of microphyta taxa at station A (right side of the river) was 12-13 species, more than station B (left side of the river). The number of microphyta taxa at Station B is 8 - 9 species, it is suspected that there is an influence from the gray water settlements around the left side, especially when the water level drops. The distribution characteristics of microphyta in the Pager river are as follows: large number of taxa/species, low abundance and low diversity index. River/peat water environments are vulnerable to change, especially human interference. This research shows the potential use of microphyta as an indicator of environmental damage.

Title of the Paper: Application of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Affects the Growth and Biomass Semanggi (Marsilea crenata Presl.)


Authors: Mustika Tripatmasari, Ariffin, Ellis Nihayati, Mangestuti Agil

Pages: 150-169

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.19     XML


Abstract: Semanggi (Marsilea crenata Presl.) is one of the aquatic plants that have been widely used by the community as food and medicinal raw materials. One of the important factors in cultivating clover is optimal fertilizer management. The incorporation of organic and inorganic nutrients has an effect on soil fertility has been repeatedly demonstrated in several studies, but there are not specific guidelines on clover cultivation. The challenge now is to combine organic matter of different qualities with inorganic fertilizers to optimize nutrient availability for the clover plant. The results of research on clover cultivation have also not been widely carried out. Therefore, it is very important to do this research with the aim of knowing the optimal effect of organic (cow manure) and inorganic (nitrogen, potassium) fertilizers on the growth and yield of clover (Marsilea crenata Presl.). The research was conducted at the Screen House of the Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University. The study was designed using a non-factorial randomized block design (RBD) with 8 (eight) treatment combinations of soil types and fertilization [inorganic (N, K) cow manure organic fertilizer (CM)], namely: P0 = soil, without fertilizer; P1 = soil, 138 kg N ha-1; P2 = soil, 136 kg K ha-1; P3 = soil, N and K, 138 and 136 kg ha-1; P4 = soil, 20x103kg of cow manure ha-1; P5 = soil, 20x103 kg of cow manure ha-1, 138 kg N ha-1; P6 = soil, 20x103 kg of cow manure ha-1, 136 kg K ha-1; P7 = soil, 20x103 kg of cow manure ha-1, N and K, 138 and 136 kg ha-1 with 3 replications, so that 24 experimental units were obtained. Each experimental unit consisted of 5 plants. Growth observations were observed destructively at the ages of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 days after planting (DAP). The results showed that there was an increase in the growth and yield of biomass in the soil combination, 20x103 kg of cow manure ha-1 (P4) was compared with the treatment without the addition of organic fertilizers (cow manure) on plant growth and yield parameters, such as stolon length (74.78 cm), number of leaves (160.44), leaf area (1379.28 cm2), root length (23.85 cm), stomata density and number of stomata (13.25); Stomata width (10.87 cm); Stomata length (19.76 cm), leaf fresh weight (12,907 g), leaf dry weight (1,802 g), total fresh weight 210,830 g, total dry weight 7,823 g, leaf harvest fresh weight (64.19 g); stalk (130.54 g); root (79.75 g); total 274.48 g), harvest dry weight of leaves (11.36 g); stalk (24.88 g); root (9.55 g); a total of 45.78 g) and the chlorophyll a content (0.804 mg.g-1); chlorophyll b (1.121mg.g-1); and total chlorophyll (1.924 mg.g-1).

Title of the Paper: Sustainable Natural Resources and Environmental Management Systems: Approach of Green Leadership Model


Authors: Normalina, Muhammad Hatta, Hafizianoor, Hamdani

Pages: 142-149

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.18     XML


Abstract: The research method is qualitative with a theory research action combination with phenomenological approach. The research design using multi-site involving six locus in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Data collection techniques used were content analysis, participatory observation and depth interviews. The analysis used in answering this research is a combination of various analytical methods to answer each of the objectives namely miles & Huberman analysis, BAPenas MAPP Analysis, Siagian Leadership Role Analysis and Webbed Spider Model Analysis as the ultimate in formulating green leadership models in the management of natural resources and sustainable environment. This study aims to observe, study and find events related to the focus of research to get the formulation of a model of green leadership in the management of natural resources and the sustainable environment that appears naturally. The results of this research found that the Green Leadership Model’s has the criteria : has an understanding of environmental issues, response to policies, community accessibility, institutional support, commitment to environmental sustainability, has innovation that is pro to the environment and an optimal role for leaders in the management of natural resources and sustainable environment. These included the following; in the past experience, sustainable management of natural resources and the environment around the Meratus mountains is strongly influenced by the leadership role both formally and informally. Sustainability of natural resource management and sustainable environment is strongly influenced by leadership who: has awareness and love for the environment, provide motivation through direct implementation to the community through policies that are implemented in maintaining environmental sustainability, provide broad access for the community to participate in the management of natural resources and the environment which experiences a lot of quality degradation ; firm and able to refuse in responding to the demands of the business world which focus on increasing profits alone to exploit natural resources and the environment; and has criteria as an environmentally friendly leadership model in accordance with the criteria needed as an ideal description of leadership. Green leadership models in the management of natural resources and the environment come from formal and informal leadership. The formal green leadership comes from the Regional / Institution / Institution of government, while the informal green leadership comes from the customary leadership that carries out customary rules that do not conflict with government regulations in the management of natural resources and the sustainable environment.

Title of the Paper: Nomogram to Early Screen Multiparous Women for Preterm Birth in a Cohort Study


Authors: Mayssa A. Traboulsi, Zainab El Alaoui Talibi, Abdellatif Boussaid

Pages: 135-141

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.17     XML


Abstract: Preterm Birth (PTB) can negatively affect the health of mothers as well as infants. Prediction of this gynecological complication remains difficult especially in Middle and Low-Income countries because of limited access to specific tests and data collection scarcity. Machine learning methods have been used to predict PTB but the low prevalence of this pregnancy complication led to rather low prediction values. The objective of this study was to produce a nomogram based on improved prediction for low prevalence PTB using up sampling and lasso penalized regression. We used data from a cohort study in Northern Lebanon of 922 multiparous presenting a PTB prevalence of 8%. We analyzed the personal, demographic, and health indicators available for this group of women. The improved Positive Predictive Value for PTB reached around 88%. The regression coefficients of the 6 selected variables (Pre-hemorrhage, Social status, Residence, Age, BMI, and Weight gain) were used to create a nomogram to screen multiparous women for PTB risk. The nomogram based on readily available indicators for multiparous women reasonably predicted most of the at PTB risk women. The physicians can use this tool to screen for women at high risk for spontaneous preterm birth to improve medical surveillance that can reduce PTB incidence.

Title of the Paper: Composition and Diversity of Plant Species in the Two Types of Land Cover of Natural Laboratory of Hampangen Educational Forest


Authors: Sosilawaty, Belinda Hastari, Ricardo Siregar

Pages: 123-134

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.16     XML


Abstract: Forests are natural resources that contribute to sustaining life support systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition and diversity of plant species in the Hampangen Educational Forest Nature Laboratory with the object of research on plant species diversity at growth rates of seedlings, poles, saplings, and trees in the observation plots of secondary swamp forest and swamp scrub. The research was conducted using a combination technique of paths and checkered lines in each of the 30 measurement plots in the two types of observation land. The results showed 52 types of plants found in all types of research land—a total of 42 species in secondary swamp forest and 26 species in scrublands. The types of plants that occupy the highest IVI at all growth levels are Akasia, Jambu-jambu, and Meranti. The Diversity Index of plant species in the study area on both land types was classified as moderate, namely in the range 1,871 - 2,968. The evenness index value (E) of plants in the land cover type of secondary swamp forest and swamp scrub was classified as high in the range of 0.753 - 0.849. The Species Richness Index (R) value of the secondary swamp forest land cover type is classified as high, whereas the swamp scrub land cover type is classified as low, while the average species similarity index in the two land cover types is low.

Title of the Paper: Structure of Hard and Soft Carapace Exoskeleton Biomaterial through SEM-EDXRS at Various Stages of Development Scylla Paramamosain Mud Crab


Authors: Haryo Triajie, Sri Andayani, Uun Yanuhar, Arning Wilujeng Ekawati

Pages: 113-122

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.15     XML


Abstract: Crustacean carapace has various functions which can be seen from the composition of the biomaterial in it. Various concentrations of inorganic biomaterial elements were investigated from the hard carapace and the newly molted (soft-shelled) (Scylla paramamosain) with SEM-EDXRS (scanning electron microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer) technique. This study traced the composition of the inorganic elements of the premolt, postmolt, intermolt and soft (exuvium) crab hard carapace tissue of mangrove crabs from the point of view. Various stages of development. Important elements such as C, O2, Mg, P, Ca, S, Na, Si, Cl, and others, are reabsorbed from the carapace into the body tissues to fulfill further needs in soft-shelled crabs and are reused to some extent during formation new carapace. This study provides evidence that, inorganic elements in freshly molted soft carapace crabs are less common than hard carapace crabs

Title of the Paper: Security Provisioning and Compression of Diverse Genomic Data based on Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm


Authors: Raveendra Gudodagi, R. Venkata Siva Reddy

Pages: 104-112

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.14     XML


Abstract: Compression of genomic data has gained enormous momentum in recent years because of advances in technology, exponentially growing health concerns, and government funding for research. Such advances have driven us to personalize public health and medical care. These pose a considerable challenge for ubiquitous computing in data storage. One of the main issues faced by genomic laboratories is the 'cost of storage' due to the large data file of the human genome (ranging from 30 GB to 200 GB). Data preservation is a set of actions meant to protect data from unauthorized access or changes. There are several methods used to protect data, and encryption is one of them. Protecting genomic data is a critical concern in genomics as it includes personal data. We suggest a secure encryption and decryption technique for diverse genomic data (FASTA / FASTQ format) in this article. Since we know the sequenced data is massive in bulk, the raw sequenced file is broken into sections and compressed. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm is used for encryption, and the Galois / Counter Mode (GCM) algorithm, is used to decode the encrypted data. This approach reduces the amount of storage space used for the data disc while preserving the data. This condition necessitates the use of a modern data compression strategy. That not only reduces storage but also improves process efficiency by using a k-th order Markov chain. In this regard, no efforts have been made to address this problem separately, from both the hardware and software realms. In this analysis, we support the need for a tailor-made hardware and software ecosystem that will take full advantage of the current stand-alone solutions. The paper discusses sequenced DNA, which may take the form of raw data obtained from sequencing. Inappropriate use of genomic data presents unique risks because it can be used to classify any individual; thus, the study focuses on the security provisioning and compression of diverse genomic data using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm.

Title of the Paper: Enhancing Quality of Experience in Malay Language Dyslexia Screening Test


Authors: Muhammad Hanif Jofri, Mohd Norasri Ismail, Mohd Farhan Md Fudzee, Muhammad Hatta Mohamed Ali @ Md Hani

Pages: 99-103

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.13     XML


Abstract: Identifying dyslexia among Malaysian citizens, especially children nowadays is a prominent issue. The usual practice of dyslexia screening tests in the Malaysian school system is by teacher's observation and intervention. However, this is usually time-consuming, less accurate and lacking additional supporting tools. Moreover, dyslexic children enrolling in a normal education system will encounter many problems for the teacher and the children themselves. A Malay language mobile-based application for a dyslexia screening test named Kiddo Disleksia has been developed to solve this issue. However, it has not been tested in terms of Quality of Experience (QoE) as well as usability. Therefore, this research aims to test the QoE level of Kiddo Disleksia and also to compare the traditional dyslexia screening test with Kiddo Disleksia in terms of usability. To test the QoE, several special education teachers are required to rate Kiddo Disleksia using Mean Opinion Score (MOS). Ten children were tested using Kiddo Disleksia and 80% of them recognized as dyslexic. This result also similar with the traditional paper-based screening test. Therefore, the Kiddo Disleksia application is considered reliable for dyslexia screening tests for children. For QoE, the results show that the mean values of MOS are 3.9 and above. Therefore, the quality of experience during dyslexia screening tests can be enhanced using Kiddo Disleksia.

Title of the Paper: In Vitro and FTIR Spectroscopy: Local Black Fruit Seed Extract as Antibacterial Aeromonas Hydrophila


Authors: Yori Turu Toja, Eddy Suprayitno, Aulanni’am, Uun Yanuhar

Pages: 92-98

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.12     XML


Abstract: Indonesia has many local plants with potential as herbal antibacterial properties, one of which is the local black fruit of Wandama. The objective of this study is to determine the antibacterial activity of the extract of black fruit seed against A. Hydrophila by in vitro and FTIR by Tilapia. The benefit of this research is to make black fruit seed extract as a natural remedy against tilapia attacked by Aeromonas Hydrophila. The antibacterial activity of black fruit seed extract against A. Hydrophila is investigated in vitro and using FTIR on tilapia in this research. The aim of this study is to establish black fruit seed extract as a natural treatment for tilapia infected with Aeromonas Hydrophila. The disc approach was used to conduct the in vitro research. Agar medium was poured into a sterile petri dish, and 2 drops of bacteria from the liquid medium were uniformly distributed and cooled. On the press, disc paper with black fruit seed extract was put and incubated for 18-24 hours at 35 C. An FTS 1000 version spectrophotometer system was used for the FTIR test. For the FT-IR study, a fraction of dried black fruit seeds was used. For clear preparation, 100 mg of dry extract is condensed in KBr pellets. A specimen of loaded black fruit seed samples was analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy with a scanning range of 400-4000 cm-1 and a resolution of 4 cm-1. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction produced an inhibition zone (13.65 mm), the water fraction produced an inhibition zone (11.21 mm), and the n-hexane fraction produced the weakest inhibition zone (11.21 mm) (5.31mm). The concentration test results from 125 ppm, 250 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm obtained a large inhibition zone at a concentration of 1000 ppm with an inhibition zone area of 11.43 + 0.02. The absorbance value of black fruit seed extract in ethyl acetate solvent at 3430 cm-1 revealed the absorption band with the strongest vibration of the hydroxylate (-OH) functional group, according to FTIR research. Final thoughts with an average value of 13.65 + 0.06, black fruit seed extract using ethyl acetate can inhibit A. Hydrophila bacteria.

Title of the Paper: Forest and Land Fire Prevention and Management: Damage Environmental of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia


Authors: Muhamad Wahyudie, Ferdinan, Salampak, Nina Yulianti

Pages: 87-91

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.11     XML


Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze policies on the prevention and handling of forest and land fires in Central Kalimantan Province and analyze the factors that influence the prevention and handling of forest and land fires in Central Kalimantan Province. The study used qualitative research methods, with research informants consisting of the Governor, the Head of the Forest Service, the Head of the Environmental Service, Community Leaders, and the people of Central Kalimantan Province. The data collection technique is done by observation, interview, and documentation study. At the same time, the data analysis used is an interactive model analysis consisting of data condensation, data display, and drawing conclusions/verification. The results showed that in accordance with Regional Regulation No. 5 of 2003 and Governor's Regulation No. 24 of 2017, the policy of preventing and handling forest and land fires in Central Kalimantan Province was carried out in two stages, namely the prevention policy and the policy of handling forest and land fires. However, in its implementation, it prioritizes the policy to extinguish forest and land fires because it has more economic, social, educational, and health impacts. Efforts to prevent and handle forest and land fires in Central Kalimantan Province are constrained by inadequate human resources, limited budget, and lack of facilities and infrastructure.

Title of the Paper: The Features of Antigen Prevalence of Rhesus System in Donor Population


Authors: M. Nagervadze, L. Akvlediani, I. Tsintsadze, T. Koiava, R. Loria, S. Tskvitinidze, R. Khukhunaishvili, M. Koridze

Pages: 76-86

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.10     XML


Abstract: Research materials and methods. 852 voluntary Georgian blood donors have been typed on red blood cells group antigens. The research materials have taken from the diagnostic laboratory of Health Centre of Batumi (Georgia republic). The immunoserological methods with monoclonal anti –AB, -B, -A, A1, -A2 (H), -C, -c, - D, -E, -e (Bio-Rad, cypress diagnostics) antibodies was used for typing blood. The ID cards, such as ABO/D + Reverse Grouping (Bio-Rad) were also used for typing of erythrocyte antigens. Result. Prevalence of Rh system antigens in the studied group is looks like so: e antigens – 94,6%, c antigens - 85%, C-68,03, E antigens - 38,07%. The majority (84%) of the studied donors are Rh-positive (n=719), 133 (16%) donors are Rh-negative. C antigen most common is present in the combination with D antigen. 65, 8 % case donors had CD+ combination (n=561). E antigen in most cases is presented with a combination of D antigen. 36, 9% of the studied donors (n=306) had ED+ combination. A miserable number of studied donors had CD - (2,23%; n=19) and ED - (1,17%; n=9) combinations. We have studied the Rh phenotypes prevalence in blood donors. According to RHD, RHC, and RHE gene loci, there are 18 theoretically possible phenotypical groups. Among them half (nine) are Rh-positive and the rest of them are Rh-negative. The Rh-positive phenotypes are: CDE; CDEe; CDe; CcDE; CcDEe; CcDe; ccDE; cDEe and cDe. Rh-negative phenotypes are CdE; CdEe; Cde; CcdE; CcdEe; Ccde; cdE; cdEe; cde. We allocated 17 Rh phenotypes among studied donors. Only one phenotype CdE, which belongs to Rh negative group, was not present in studied donors. Other 17 phenotypes showed different frequencies. Some of them were only in a single case, for example, cdEe, cdE, CdEe phenotypes had only one donor. The majority of the phenotype in he studied donors (27,8±1,53%) was CcDe (n=237). CcDEe - 19,3±1,35% (n=165); 125 donors have CDe phenotype (14,6±1,2); The frequency of cde was 13,1±1,5%, which means that 112 studied donors belonged to this phenotype group; 87 studied donors had cDEe phenotype characteristics (10,2%); The frequency of cDe was 4,9% (n=42); 19 donors had CDEe phenotype. Other phenotypes (CDE, Cde, CcdEe, Ccde) frequency was very low. Conclusion. Our studied donors are characterized by rather high polymorphism. The Georgian donor’s population is heterogenic, especially high heterogeneity are shown in Rh positive phenotypes. The obtained data is vital importance for the preparation of whole blood or certain blood components for the purpose of their rational usage in blood transfusion.

Title of the Paper: Policy Priorities for Improving the Quality of Slum Settlements in Banjarmasin City, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia


Authors: Miftahul Chair, Fadly H. Yusran, Husaini, Nasruddin

Pages: 68-75

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.9     XML


Abstract: Banjarmasin city faces almost the same problems as other big cities in the world, namely slum settlements. One of the factors in the formation of slum settlements in Banjarmasin city is urbanization. The population that continues to increase due to the flow of urbanization causes urban areas to have a very urgent problem, namely the provision of housing facilities. The high price of land in the city center and low-per capita income cause people to tend to look for settlements in suburban areas with inadequate environments and supporting facilities. This research aims to identify the conditions of slum settlements in Banjarmasin City and formulate policy priorities to improve the quality of slum settlements in Banjarmasin City. To answer all these objectives, an integrated settlement management system can be implemented. Comprehensive integration between office holders, stakeholders, and residents will produce a draft policy and slum management scenario. In addition, the policy for sustainable management of slum settlements in Banjarmasin City is also designed using the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) approach. The slum settlements in Banjarmasin city are generally caused by geographical location, where most of them are river and swamp areas. Slums are getting worse because of the bad sanitation system. Ecological factor is the main priority factor in improving the quality of slum settlements. This is because if the slum area is able to maintain its ecology, it will be able to overcome disturbances or pressure, maintain or regain its function and shape. Based on AHP analysis, it is also known that the policy priority in improving the quality of slum settlements is by redevelopment. This effort is the rearrangement of part or all of the area for the purpose of managing the slum settlements in Banjarmasin city.

Title of the Paper: Fetal Heart Rate Extraction using NLMS Algorithm


Authors: Ricky K., Arjuna M., Sadegh Aminifar

Pages: 61-67

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.8     XML


Abstract: This project develops a fetal heart rate (FHR) extraction application to analyze the fetus activity in the mother uterus. Several methods are available that can be used to detect FHR such as using the fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) that generated by fetus’ heart. Extracting FECG signals is considered a major challenge while the fetus is inside the mother uterus. Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) algorithm is one of adaptive filters that is chosen as adaptive filter to get FECG. Pan Tompkins algorithm is used for tracking R-peaks of heartbeat pulses of FECG signal. After detecting the RR interval a formula is used to calculate the bpm (heartbeat per minute) of FECG. Abdominal and direct FECG (ADFECG) database will be used to evaluate the implemented techniques as it has reference signal. At the end of research, calculated FHR is varied from 125.4 bpm to 130.3 bpm. When comparison is done between abdominal ECG (AECG) and direct FECG (DFECG), the error of FHR is 0.1%. The accuracy of R-peaks extraction is 100% where all R-peaks are detected by implemented techniques. MATLAB is used for signal simulations. This system will have ability to interpret the non-invasive FECG (NIFECG) database and compute its FHR.

Title of the Paper: A Novel Approach for Identification of Exon Locations in DNA Sequences using GLC Window


Authors: P. Kamala Kumari, J. B. Seventline

Pages: 47-60

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.7     XML


Abstract: The application of signal processing techniques for identification of exons in Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence is a challenging task. The objective of this paper is to introduce a combinational window approach for locating exons in DNA sequence. In contrast to the traditional single window function for evaluation of short time Fourier transform (STFT), this work proposes a novel method for evaluating STFT coefficients using a combinational window function comprising of Gaussian, Lanczos and Chebyshev (GLC) windows. The chosen combinational window GLC has the highest relative side lobe attenuation values compared to other window functions introduced by various researchers. The proposed algorithm incorporates GLC window function for evaluating STFT coefficients and in the design of FIR bandpass filter. Simulation results revealed its effectiveness in improving the evaluation parameters like Sensitivity, Specificity, Accuracy, Area under curve (AUC), Discrimination Measure (DM). Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has been applied successfully to some universal benchmark datasets like C. elegans, Homosapiens, etc., The proposed method has shown to be an efficient approach for the prediction of protein coding regions compared to other existing methods. All the simulations are done using the MATLAB 2016a.

Title of the Paper: Analysis and Detection of Nephrolithiasis using Imaging Techniques


Authors: Smiti Tripathy, Sivakumar R., Simran Nair, Inbamalar T. M.

Pages: 36-46

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.6     XML


Abstract: Nephrolithiasis (kidney stone) is a disease which affects 7% of females and 11% of males at some stage in their life. Early identification of Nephrolithiasis is necessary to avoid complications. Imaging techniques form the basis for the detection of kidney stones and aid in locating the position, size, and the number of stones present in the renal structure. This paper reports an extensive analysis of recent trends in the detection of Nephrolithiasis using Imaging techniques. Since Computed Tomography (CT) and ultrasound imaging are commonly used in the medical field, analysis of both the methods is considered in this paper. The detailed study on various methodologies and algorithms that have been adopted on CT and ultrasound images in recent years in locating kidney stones, finding the exact size of the stones based on pixel count, enhancing image quality, obtaining better de-speckling, faster segmentation, and pre-processing of the renal images has been carried out. Based on the analysis, an artificial intelligence-based approach is proposed that will aid the medical practitioner for faster, accurate detection of Nephrolithiasis and a technique to reduce the exposure of radiation in Computed Tomography Imaging. Further, it is concluded that ultrasound techniques can be employed subsequently for preliminary diagnosis through CT if the medical practitioner recommends.

Title of the Paper: Swine Ultrasonography Numerical Modeling for Pregnancy Diagnosis and Prediction of Litter Size


Authors: Konstantinos Kousenidis, Ioannis A. Giantsis, Efstathia Karageorgiou, Melpomeni Avdi

Pages: 29-35

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.5     XML


Abstract: Early and reliable diagnosis of pregnancy in sows is considered one of the most crucial parameters for the proper management in pig farming. Reproductive activity of the sows is directly correlated with the overall productivity of the enterprise. The best and most precise methodology to diagnose pregnancy in farm animals, including pigs, is ultrasonography. For getting optimal outputs of real-time ultrasonography application in pigs, both gestation status and litter size of sows is of high importance. Hence, a detailed evaluation and careful reading of the retrieved ultrasonic image could serve to the prediction of the sow’s litter size, providing valuable information to the producer. In the present article we studied the ultrasonic typification of sows in an effort to develop a methodology for the precise pregnancy diagnosis and the prediction of the litter size. To achieve this goal, 1214 matings and 1010 pregnancies were recorded and evaluated over a period of 20 months, in a pig unit in Northern Greece. Two thorough scans were performed on each sow, classifying the ultrasonic image in a scale of 0 to 10, 0 being ‘non pregnant’ and 10 given to the most reassuring image of pregnancy. Evaluations took place in a wide range of time since mating, hence between days 16 (the earliest first scan) and 68 (the latest that a second scan was performed) and the mean values obtained were 8,36 and 8,83 for the first and second scan respectively. Furthermore, the litter size of each subsequent parturition was recorded (mean: 12.22) and correlated to the score of each of the two scans performed during pregnancy. The results showed that more reassuring images and higher scores for both examinations of pregnancy were achieved with increasing time interval from mating (P<0.05). It is therefore suggested that a detailed real-time ultrasonic scanning, can provide a very useful tool, not only for pregnancy diagnosis, but also for the prediction of litter size and eventually the precise management of pregnant sows.

Title of the Paper: Assessment of Major Depressive Disorders through Neuroimaging Studies and Their Treatment Methods


Authors: Jevetha Vijayadasan, Diksha Raghunathan, Sivakumar Rajagopal, Rahul Soangra

Pages: 18-28

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.4     XML


Abstract: Many mental disorders are caused due to improper regulation of the brain and depression is one such. It affects both children and adults and is very common among teenagers. There are many challenges clinicians face regarding the management of this disease. These challenges have prompted the development of various neuroimaging techniques that effectively diagnose the condition. The main techniques are Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Positron emission tomography (PET) which have gained momentum over the years. Advanced MRI techniques help study certain regions of the brain such as hippocampus and amygdala. Effective treatments for depression include antidepressant medications and brain stimulation techniques. Although treatments are effective for a lot of people, there is still room for improvement. This article (1) presents background on depression, its types, symptoms and risk factors; (2) elaborates the neuroimaging techniques used and reviews the various techniques adopted over the years to study depression; and (3) discusses the treatment methods that can be practised to cure depression.

Title of the Paper: Obesity and Lifestyle Indicators Impact on Obstetric Complications and Fetal Outcome in North Lebanon Population


Authors: Mayssa A. Traboulsi, Abdellatif Boussaid, Zainab. El Alaoui Talibi

Pages: 9-17

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.3     XML


Abstract: Worldwide, obesity has been shown to negatively affect women especially during pregnancy. In this work, a retrospective cohort study for 1308 women, who gave birth between 2014 and 2016 in public and private hospitals, was conducted to evaluate the impact of weight, demographic and lifestyle indicators on many pregnancy and fetal outcomes in Northern Lebanon. The frequent health complications related to pregnancy were cesarean-section (31.1%) followed by post-hemorrhage (25.1%), induced labor (23.5%) and macrosomia (11.4%). Multivariate analysis showed that the main complications were highly correlated to obesity, macrosomia, weight gain, multiparity and mother’s age. High values from adjusted odds ratios were mainly associated to obesity, multiparity and weight gain. Obese pregnant women had a significant increased risk of having cesarean-section (p<0.001), pre-eclampsia (p<0.0001), labor induction (p<0.0001) and post-partum hemorrhage (p<0.0001). Adverse fetal outcomes such as macrosomia were also correlated with high BMI (p<0.0001). The risk was even greater for multiparous, older women that carried excessive weight gain. There is therefore a need to increase awareness among the target population and encourage prevention of the dangers related to obesity and weight gain.

Title of the Paper: Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity of Condensate Produced from Olive Mill Wastewater using Solar Energy in Mice


Authors: Bahaa Al-Trad, Sameh Gharaibeh, Ameerah Qeshawy, Mazhar Salim Al Zoubi, Almuthanna K. Alkaraki, Sahar Omari, Malek Shehab

Pages: 4-8

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.2     XML


Abstract: Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is one of the environmental challenges associated with the olive oil industry. This study was carried out to investigate the potential acute and sub-chronic toxicity of oral treatment of OMW condensate in mice. Different doses (250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 mg/kg) were applied once to investigate acute toxicity. Sub-chronic toxicity was investigated using thirty mice; two groups with (500, 4000 mg/kg/body weight) doses along with one control group. Acute toxicity study results showed that the LD50 was greater than the highest tested dose with no signs of systemic toxicity, mortality, or behavioral changes. In addition, the sub-chronic investigation did not show significant changes in behavior, body weight, and vital organs weight/body weight ratio along with no observed differences in the studied hematological parameters. Condensate dose of 500 mg/kg did not show significant differences in the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). However, the AST serum level was significantly decreased and the serum level of BUN was increased at the dose of 4000 mg/kg. Results suggest that single and repeated oral doses of olive condensate administered orally are safe in mice.

Title of the Paper: Arrhythmia Detection Algorithm using GoogLeNet and Generative Adversarial Network with Lifelog Signals


Authors: Siho Shin, Jaehyo Jung, Mingu Kang, Youn Tae Kim

Pages: 1-3

DOI: 10.46300/91011.2021.15.1     XML

Abstract: Arrhythmia is a cardiovascular disease with an irregular heartbeat, which can lead to a heart attack if it lasts for an excessive amount of time. Because the symptoms of arrhythmia occur irregularly, the heart needs to be monitored for a lengthy time period. This study suggests an arrhythmia diagnosis algorithm using GoogLeNet and a GAN. Because the algorithm proposed in this study can add to the number of data using a GAN, it can accurately diagnose an arrhythmic occurrence from measured lifelog over a short period of time. The classification of ECG data using GoogLeNet and a GAN showed an accuracy of approximately 99%.