International Journal of Energy

ISSN: 1998-4316
Volume 6, 2012

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Issue 1, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Using Clonal Selection Algorithm to Optimize the Control Parameter for Microgrid System

Authors: H. Piarehzadeh, A. Khanjanzadeh

Pages: 1-8

Abstract: This paper presents a controller which used for operation of Microgrid. Microgrid has two operation modes. First mode is grid connected and second mode is Islanding. During grid connected mode, DGs operates in PQ control mode. It means that DGs inject constant active and reactive power. In this mode the voltage and frequency of Microgrid are controlled with main grid. During Islanded mode, the Microgrid must be able to supply the loads and controlled the voltage and frequency of Microgrid in permissible range. The proposed controller has power and current control for regulating voltage and frequency and droop controller for power sharing between the parallel DG systems. In this research the control parameters are optimized by Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA).

Title of the Paper: Neural Network for Modeling Solar Panel

Authors: Moufdi Hadjab, Smail Berrah, Hamza Abid

Pages: 9-16

Abstract: In this paper, we present the results of the characterization and modeling of the electrical current-voltage and power-voltage of the photovoltaic (PV) panel BP 3160W, using a new approach based on artificial intelligence. We analyze the electrical parameters of solar cells and electrical parameters of the optimal PV panel (current, voltage and power) according to changes in weather (temperature, irradiation...) by the simulation programs carried out in MATLAB. These simulation results were compared with experimental data to be validated.

Title of the Paper: Artificial Intelligence Techniques to Evaluate Transformer Switching Overvoltages

Authors: Iman Sadeghkhani, Arezoo Mortazavian, Nima Haratian, Abbas Ketabi, Rene Feuillet

Pages: 17-24

Abstract: One of the major concerns, especially at the beginning of a system restoration, is related to temporary overvoltages. Such an overvoltage might damage some equipment and delay power system restoration. In this paper an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based approach is used to evaluate switching overvoltages during transformer energization. In proposed methodology, Levenberg-Marquardt method is used to train the multilayer perceptron. The developed ANN is trained with the extensive simulated results, and tested for typical cases. Then the new algorithms are presented and demonstrated for a partial of 39- bus New England test system. The simulated results show that the proposed technique can estimate the peak values and duration of switching overvoltages with good accuracy.

Title of the Paper: Estimating Global Solar Energy Using Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Tamer Khatib, Azah Mohamed, M. Mahmoud, K. Sopian

Pages: 25-33

Abstract: This paper presents a global solar energy estimation method using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The clearness index is used to calculate global solar irradiations. The ANN model is based on the feed forward multilayer perception model with four inputs and one output. The inputs are latitude, longitude, day number and sunshine ratio; the output is the clearness index. Based on the results, the average MAPE, mean bias error and root mean square error for the predicted global solar irradiation are 5.92%, 1.46% and 7.96%.

Title of the Paper: EMTP Modeling of Cogeneration System for Transient Stability Analysis

Authors: Wei-Neng Chang, Chia-Han Hsu

Pages: 34-41

Abstract: This paper focuses on the EMTP modeling of a cogeneration system for transient stability analysis. First, the structure and operation mode of the cogeneration system are introduced. Then, use of the electromagnetic transient program (EMTP) constructs the overall cogeneration system. The effects of unbalanced faults on the transient stability of the cogeneration system are observed with the modeled system. Several fault types, including 3-line-to-ground (3LG) fault, double line-to-ground (2LG) fault, line-to-line fault (2LF), and single line-to-ground (SLG) fault are assigned respectively for transient stability simulations. Finally, use of critical clearing time (CCT) curves evaluate the transient stability of the cogeneration system to different types of short-circuit faults. The simulation results are listed and evaluated.

Title of the Paper: Real Finnish Network Reliability and Performance Enhancing by Optimal UPFC

Authors: Ahmed M. Othman, Mahdi M. El-Arini, Matti Lehtonen

Pages: 42-50

Abstract: UPFC has an efficient feature to control some of the network parameters as the active power flow, reactive power flow, and voltage magnitude at the UPFC installation buses. Using UPFC, the performance of the power system during various operating conditions can be improved. In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to find the optimal location and the optimal UPFC parameters setting to enhance the transmission lines overloading issue keeping the voltage profile inside the enhanced limits. Additionally the outage cost of the power system is used to verify the impact of the optimized UPFC on the reliability. The application of this procedure is proposed on Helsinki HELENSÄHKÖVERKKO 110 KV NETWORK, which is a real Finnish world 110-kV sub transmission network with operating conditions of the present year until the year 2020. To show the validity of the technique, it will be tested first on the IEEE 6-bus system. The impact of UPFC installation in Helen network on the reliability in terms of outage costs will be discussed.

Title of the Paper: The Fuel Temperature Influence on Gas Emissions when it is Used Diesel-Palm Oil Mixtures as Fuel

Authors: Charalampos Arapatsakos, Dimitrios Christoforidis, Styliani Gkavaki

Pages: 51-64

Abstract: One of the main global problems is air pollution. The main sources of air pollution are transportation and fuel combustion. Therefore, there is a big need to produce appropriate fuels, which will have minimal environmental and social degradation. The main aim of this work is to examine the effect of fuel temperature in gas emissions that is used in a four-stroke diesel engine. The fuel temperatures that have been used are 20oC, 30oC, 40oC, 50oC, 60oC, 70oC and 80oC. The engine was functioned on 1000rpm, 1500rpm, 2000rpm, 2500rpm, 2000rpm, 1500rpm, 1000rpm(pyramid of rpm) when it has been used different mixtures of diesel-palm oil as fuel. For those fuel temperatures the gas emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen monoxide (NO) and smoke have been examined.

Issue 2, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Efficiency Improvement for Motor-Pump Set of a Wind Energy Pumped Storage System Using V/FX Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Muhammad M. A. S. Mahmoud

Pages: 65-72

Abstract: In this paper we shall focus on the pump storage systems as an important application for wind energy as the pumped storage systems are more and more involved in renewable energy at high power levels. But at the same time, pumped storage can be successfully used for grid integration of small scale renewable energy sources, such as wind energy. The purpose of this paper is to design optimum fuzzy motor controller for pump driving in order to obtain maximum power available for pumping and minimum motor losses, and hence, a higher efficiency of the pump. Two fuzzy motor controllers based on linear dependency (V/Hz) and cubic dependency (V/Hz3) between voltage and frequency are developed for induction machine in pumped storage applications. The fuzzy controller is designed to receive frequency input from the network and estimate the required firing angle of a full-wave Thyristor circuit placed between the source and the load to control the load voltage. The fuzzy controllers have considered the variation of the power supply frequency during the motor starting and running cases to select the optimum applied voltage to the motor for both cases. Simulation of the motor operation during the starting and running is carried out for the full applicable range of frequency. The results and the detailed graphs show how the designed controller is fast and accurate. Required motor protection and comparison between DC link and Thyristor full wave circuit control has been discussed as well.

Title of the Paper: Unit Commitment based Bidding Strategies for Generation Companies using Adaptive Fuzzy Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: J. Vijaya Kumar, D. M. Vinod Kumar, K. Edukondalu

Pages: 73-80

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology based on Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO) for the preparation of optimal bidding strategies corresponding unit commitment by Generation companies (Gencos) in order to gain maximum profits in a day-ahead electricity market. In a competitive electricity market with limited number of suppliers, Gencos are facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition. Under oligopoly market environment, each Genco may increase its own profit through a favourable bidding strategy. In FAPSO the inertia weight is tuned using fuzzy IF/THEN rules. The fuzzy rule-based systems are natural candidates to design inertia weight, because they provide a way to develop decision mechanism based on specific nature of search regions, transitions between their boundaries and completely dependent on the problem. The proposed method is tested with a numerical example and results are compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA) and different versions of PSO. The results show that fuzzying the inertia weight improve the search behaviour, solution quality and reduced computational time compared to GA and different versions of PSO.

Title of the Paper: The Carbon Dioxide Life Cycle Footprint of Battery-Powered Electric Vehicles using Electricity from Biomass-Fired Power Plants in Greece

Authors: Dimitrios Georgakellos, Eirini Polychronidou, Charalampia Florou

Pages: 81-88

Abstract: The present paper attempts to estimate the carbon dioxide life cycle footprint of battery-powered electric vehicle (BPEV) technologies that use, as energy carrier, electricity produced from biomass-fired power plants in Greece. This footprint is being evaluated through the associated external cost caused to the society. For the interpretation of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide (CO2) life-cycle emissions of the examined transport technology, the basic principles of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach together with the EcoSenseLE tool have been used. The results show that, since biomass-fired power plants have a very good performance as well as BPEVs are generally energy efficient and have quite limited CO2 emissions, the examined carbon dioxide life cycle footprint seems to be sufficiently satisfactory. Regarding the reliability of the results, the general limitation of the external cost methodology applies to this work, together with data limitations and assumptions related to the LCA methodology. Nevertheless, the findings of the present paper could be important for decision making in environmental and energy policies.

Issue 3, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Transport, Energy, Externalities and their Relation to Economic Output

Authors: Zdeněk Říha, Marek Honců

Pages: 89-96

Abstract: The transport system has a strong relationship to economy, life quality and environment. The economy with high level of division of labour would not be productive enough without efficient transport systems. However, they require increasing transport capacity and have impact on the environment and power supply. It is a proved fact, that countries with more liberal economy are economically stronger (the relation between the index of economic freedom and the gross domestic product). But the question is what the consequences for other human activities are and whether in the transportation we can use the so called Kuznets curve, which predicates that the environmental impacts decrease with the increasing wealth. We particularly examine the relationship between emissions from road transport in the Czech Republic and in 16 European countries and their economic output expressed by the GDP. This relation is known as the Kuznets environmental curve and it claims that from a certain level of welfare the human impacts on the environment decrease.

Title of the Paper: Modeling a Thermo - Electrical Concentrating Solar System for Heat and Electricity of a House

Authors: C. B. Mocanu, K. Uzuneanu, J. C. Freitas, J. Martins, D. Tasma

Pages: 97-104

Abstract: Thermoelectric generators are devices which collectsolar radiation, they convert heat directly into electrical energy, usinga phenomenon called the "Seebeck effect" and then transform it intoelectricity heat and they deliver it to a heat exchanger through theheat carrier. The purpose of this project is to examine the feasibilityand efficiency of using solar energy in a house. Energy and thermalanalyzes were evaluated, for a house using a concentrating solarsystem with TEG modules. The concentrator is composed of aFresnel lens that focuses sunlight onto a plate of aluminum alloycoated with low emissivity paint, the absorber. From there the heat istransferred to the hot side of the module and part of it is transformedinto electricity. The module transfers the remaining thermal energy toa water-cooling system. Therefore the concentrating system enablesthe harvest of electrical energy as well as thermal energy.

Title of the Paper: Non-Euclidian Methods to Replicate Urban and Garden Patterns in P.R. of China

Authors: Zhi Yue, Songlin Wei, Jon Bryan Burley

Pages: 105-114

Abstract: Planners and designers are interested methods and procedures to create and replicate environments for historic preservation and blend new built environments with existing. Both fractal and logistic regression spatial quantitative methods are relatively new tools to describe the built environment. We applied the fractal reverse box-counting method to the Master of the Nets garden in Suzhou, Jiangsu, China and to a housing pattern on Lamma Island, Hong, Kong to study and replicate the fractal pattern We discovered the fractal number in the garden for the “turning points” along the garden’s pathway system (1.577), calculated the fractal number of the center points of polygons in the garden (1.305), and Lamma Island’s fractal number for the spatial pattern of houses was (1.158). By applying the reverse box-counting method, we were able the replicate the general compositional style of this garden and the pattern of housing on Llama Island. In addition, through logistic regression we were able to predict the location of the main water feature and subordinate spaces in the Masters of the Nets garden by knowing the distance from existing garden walls (p<0.05).

Issue 4, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Improving the Electric Power Quality by UPFC Systems in Electrical Networks

Authors: DIB Djalel, A. Rezaiguia, Z. Abada

Pages: 115-122

Abstract: Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is used to control the power flow in the transmission systems by controlling the impedance, voltage magnitude and phase angle. This controller offers advantages in terms of static and dynamic operation of the power system. It also brings in new challenges in power electronics and power system design. The basic structure of the UPFC consists of two voltage source inverter (VSI); where one converter is connected in parallel to the transmission line (STATCOM) while the other is in series with the transmission line (SSSC). We present in this paper a theoretical description of the UPFC system, its modeling and a case study by simulation by Matlab/Simulink. We investigate so, the effect of UPFC on the voltage of the related bus, it’s also considers the effect on the amount active and reactive power flowing through the transmission system. The aim of the paper is the modeling, the identification of the references and control of UPFC and studying its influence on the electrical network. Finally the simulation results have been presented to indicate the improvement in the performance of the UPFC to control voltage in power systems.

Title of the Paper: Steady-State Analysis of DFIG for Wind Power Generation System Drive

Authors: Jihene Ben Alaya, Adel Khedher, Mohamed Faouzi Mimouni

Pages: 123-132

Abstract: Wind energy has a key role to play in producing of clean and less expensive electrical energy. Researchers develop the necessary procedure to optimize and to control this energy. They are focused on the control of the wind energy conversion system based on double fed induction generator (DFIG). In this paper, a steady-state study of DFIG generation system allows knowing the statics limits of the system like its behavior versus the amplitude and phase angle of the equivalent injected rotor voltage variations. According to results, a good coordination between both direct and quadratic components of the injected rotor voltage of the DFIG allows to found an optimal operation of DFIG. Based on the steady-state analysis, a nonlinear vector control based on the second approach of Lyapunov of the rotor side converter and a direct power control strategy with no need of dc-link voltage regulation of the grid side converter is presented. Simulation results show a good performance of the generation system under the proposed strategies.

Title of the Paper: Comparison and Statistical Validation of a Model of a Photovoltaic Module

Authors: Moufdi Hadjab, Bendida Medjahed

Pages: 133-140

Abstract: The study presented in this paper includes acomparison, and a statistical validation. The results that are obtainedby a numerical simulation in MATLAB are compared with theexperimental results that are taken from the Unit of Applied Researchin Renewable Energy "Gharda?a" (URAERG) (Experience in the fieldof solar energy). The work is to exploit the experimental dataobtained by exposing the solar cells (panel BP3160W) to light(sunlight), wherever the place of use and the operating conditions.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the model of single diodeproposed by Walker of University of Queensland, Australia, uses theelectric model with moderate complexity. The numerical results arepresented relating to the current-voltage characteristics and powervoltage;during a change of weather conditions such as light, andtemperature. To compare, objectively, the performance of the modelwith the diode modeled using experimental data, statistical indicatorsproposed by Chang and Hanna (2004) were calculated for differentmeasurement points of light and temperature; the analysis shows thatthe results for the current and the power reflect the physical reality.Note; however, that the model results are in a very good agreementwith experimental measurements.

Title of the Paper: Energetic Efficiency Improvement of Hydropower Plants with Long Adduction

Authors: Nitescu Claudiu Stefan, Constantin Anca, Stanescu Madalina

Pages: 141-148

Abstract: The energetic efficiency of a hydroelectric power plant may be increased by a compensating tank (or the large sized upper compartment) attached to the surge tank, which is used as a mean of protection for long adduction hydroelectric power plants. The compensating tank will supply the power duct with an additional flow, reducing the friction losses in the adduction pipe. The stability of the hydro-energetic system will not be influenced by the use of such a compensation tank. The paper present our investigations regarding the dependence of the efficiency on the tank diameter and on the operation time. For a reduced operation time in which a hydroelectric power plant operates (3-6 hours) a large water volume is saved. The spared water volume can be used to produce additional energy, by increasing the amount of time in which the hydropower plant operates or we can consider that for the same water volume more electric energy can be obtained from the turbine-generator system.

Title of the Paper: Energetic Perspective on Irrigation Water Pumping Stations

Authors: A. Constantin, C. St. Nitescu, M. Stanescu

Pages: 149-156

Abstract: New sources of clean energy and new technologies for energy generation, more friendly with the environment, are important goals for the scientists, but in the same time they have to focus on the reduction of energy consumption as well as to the efficiency improvement of the greatest existing consumers. The modernization of old pumping stations is a stringent demand in Dobroudja, Romania, where agriculture relays on irrigation. The paper presents two existing pumping stations efficiency increase key-measures, mainly identified on the basis of an energetic analysis of the entire hydraulic system. The energy saving after the modernization of the hydraulic system is calculated in terms of energy consumed for 1000 m3 pumped water.

Title of the Paper: Legal Regulation of Slovenian Electricity Market

Authors: V. Pozeb, D. Goricanec, T. Krope

Pages: 157-164

Abstract: Legal regulation of Slovenian national electricity market is necessary to provide a framework for ensuring secure and competitive supply of energy. National laws have to comply with EU legislation, where directives need to be transposed into national legislation. One of the main goals of European energy policy is to create a single European energy market. The directives regulate the future connection of energy markets, whereas regulations have a direct effect in the national legislation of each EU Member State. Furthermore, certain directives are adopted in order to encourage use of renewable sources for electricity production.

Title of the Paper: Ericsson Heat Engine with Microchannel Recuperator for Solar Concentrator with Flat Mirrors

Authors: Ernst Kussul, Oleksandr Makeyev, Tatiana Baidyk, Jose Saniger Blesa, Neil Bruce

Pages: 165-177

Abstract: In this article we propose new support frame structurefor solar concentrator with flat mirrors, discuss the assembly methodof the frame structure, and propose the Ericsson heat engine to transferthe heat energy to electrical energy. At present, Stirling cycle andRankine cycle heat engines are used to transform the heat energy ofsolar concentrators to mechanical and electrical energy. The Rankinecycle is used for large-scale solar power plants. The Stirling cycle canbe used for small-scale solar power plants. The Stirling cycle heatengine has many advantages such as high efficiency, long service life,silent operation, etc. However, the Stirling cycle is good for hightemperature difference (up to 700 C). It demands the use of expensivematerials and has problems of lubrication. Its efficiency depends onthe efficiency of the heat regenerator. The design and manufacture of aheat regenerator is not a trivial problem because the regenerator has tobe placed in the internal space of the engine. It is possible to avoid thisproblem if we place the regenerator out of the internal engine space.To realize this idea it is necessary to develop the Ericsson cycle heatengine. We propose a structure of this engine. A computer simulationwas made to evaluate the Ericsson engine parameters. In this article wediscuss the obtained results.