International Journal of Biology and Biomedical Engineering

E-ISSN: 1998-4510
Volume 7, 2013

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Issue 1, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: Behaviour of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Sunscreens

Authors: Rahula Janis, Jiri Krejci, Iva Hauerlandova, Pavlina Vltavska, Jana Pavlackova, Hana Bendova, Marketa Jancikova

Pages: 1-6

Abstract: UV radiation has important biological consequences to the skin and photoprotection is therefore highly important. Topically applied sunscreens containing zinc oxide as UV filter belong to the group of potentially used photoprotective agents. In this study we have focused on the behaviour of ZnO in nanoform in cosmetic products. With regard to zinc oxide nanoparticles, there is a lack of reliable data on the percutaneous absorption of these particles. Therefore the ability of ZnO nanoparticles from commercial emulsions to penetrate skin layers was studied using dermal absorption procedure. Two methods were used for ZnO determination in commercial fat bases: spectrophotometric method and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that data obtained by AAS are very close to the actual ZnO content in commercial samples and therefore this method seems to be suitable for ZnO determination in cosmetic products. Contrary to AAS, spectrophotometric procedure is more problematic with a greater tendency to provide values higher than actual. According to the dermal absoption procedure it was found, that the majority of ZnO remains on the skin surface and do not enter the viable skin parts.

Title of the Paper: Data Mining the Functional Characterizations of Proteins to Predict their Cancer-Relatedness

Authors: Peter Z. Revesz, Christopher J.-L. Assi

Pages: 7-14

Abstract: This paper considers two types of protein data. First, data about protein function described in a number of ways, such as, GO terms and PFAM families. Second, data about whether individual proteins are experimentally associated with cancer by an anomalous elevation or lowering of their expressions within cancerous cells. We combine these two types of protein data and test whether the first type of data, that is, the functional descriptors, can predict the second type of data, that is, cancer-relatedness. By using data mining and machine learning, we derive a classifier algorithm that using only GO term and PFAM family descriptions of a protein can predict with over 73 percent accuracy whether it is associated with pancreatic cancer.

Title of the Paper: Ab Initio Study of the Dimers of Nodifloridin B

Authors: Liliana Mammino

Pages: 15-25

Abstract: Nodifloridin B is an acylated phloroglucinol derivative in which both the acyl chain and a substituent in meta to the acyl chain end with a COOH function. Carboxylic acids can form dimers through hydrogen bonds between the COOH functions of two molecules. In the case of nodifloridin B, the presence of two COOH functions in the same molecule enables the formation of different types of dimers: open-shape dimers, in which only one COOH group of a molecule binds to a COOH group of another molecule, and ring-shaped dimers, in which each COOH of a molecule binds to a COOH of another molecule. The present computational study analyses the possible shapes of the various types of dimers and compares their relative stabilities and their geometry features.

Issue 2, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: Performance of Different Calculation Methods: Indications from the Study of Various Classes of Polyphenols

Authors: Liliana Mammino

Pages: 27-35

Abstract: The selection of the computational method that can be optimal for the molecule or class of molecules under study is a crucial issues in computational chemistry. When the molecules are not small, the search for an optimal balance between results accuracy and computational costs becomes a key aspect. Useful indications may be provided by the identification of patterns in the performance of different calculation methods. The present work compares the performance and the computational costs of three methods (HF, DFT/B3LYP and MP2), on the basis of the results of extensive studies of three classes of polyphenolic compounds (hydroxybenzenes, their carboxylic acids, and acylphloroglucinols). It is concluded that HF has considerably lower computational cost for middle-size molecules; that it can be considered a reasonable method, above all for studies aimed at trend identification; and that independent verification of its performance for any new class of molecules is to be recommended.

Title of the Paper: New External Fixators for Treatment of Pelvis and Acetabulum Fractures

Authors: K. Frydrysek, L. Pleva, J. Jorenek, V. Jecminek, R. Klucka, M. Sivera

Pages: 36-42

Abstract: At first, the doctors mentioned their own medical experience with treatment of complex pelvic injury in patients with polytrauma and give reasons for necessity of early stabilization of pelvic fractures by means of external fixation, especially with continuous hemorrhage into lesser pelvis region and the retroperitoneum. Afterwards they used damage control surgery methods including selective embolization. However, this article is focused also on the design of external fixators applied in traumatology and orthopaedics (i.e skills of engineers). These fixators can be used in the treatment of open and unstable (i.e. complicated) fractures of pelvis and its acetabulum. Two versions (i.e. old and new) are compared. Numerical modelling (i.e. Finite Element Method), together with CAD modelling, experiments, material engineering, and nanotechnology are presented as a support for developing of a new design of external fixators.

Title of the Paper: New External Fixators for Treatment of Complicated Periprosthetic Fractures

Authors: K. Frydrysek, L. Pleva, O. Ucen, T. Kubin, M. Sir, R. Madeja, L. Zilka

Pages: 43-49

Abstract: In this article, doctors want to draw attention to the possibilities of treatment of periprosthetic fractures of femur. They present their own experiences with the treatment of these fractures by using various types of internal and external fixation. In this article, Engineers report about the new design of external fixators invented at the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava and at the Trauma Centre of The University Hospital in Ostrava together with MEDIN a.s. companiy. These fixators are intended for the treatment of open, unstable and complicated fractures in traumatology and orthopaedics for humans or animals limbs. The new design is based on the development of Ilizarov and other techniques (i.e. shape and weight optimalization based on composite materials, application of smart materials, nanotechnology, low x-ray absorption, antibacterial protection, patient's comfort, reduction in the duration of the surgical treatment, and cost).

Issue 3, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: Stroke Patients and a Non-Linear Analysis of Heart Rate Variability


Authors: Graziamaria Corbi, Gianni D'addio, Giovanna Russo, Giuseppe Rengo, Gian Domenico Pinna, Roberto Maestri, Franco Rengo, Nicola Ferrara

Pages: 51-58

Abstract: Cerebrovascular diseases represent one of the major cause of death and disability in western countries. Considering the projection in older population by 2100, life expectancy is expected to vary across countries from 66 to 97 years, and by 2300 from 87 to 106 years. Beyond the demographic window, population ageing becomes a predominant demographic feature. The analysis of heart rate variability is a well recognized non-invasive tool to investigate the cardiovascular autonomic control but only limited data are available on the autonomic imbalance assessment of stroke patients by heart rate variability changes after a prior single stroke, using time- and frequency-domain linear methods. To evaluate the relationship between lesion’s severity and Poincarè' Plots features, 20 first-ever stroke subjects, divided on the basis of presence of a single or multiple medium cerebral artery lesion, and 10 healthy subjects were studied. All subjects underwent to a 24-hour ECG recording analysed by Poincarè' Plots, spectral and time-domain techniques. The Poincarè' Plots were quantified by computer-generated indexes, namely the length (L), wideness (W) and area (A) of 2D plots and the number of peaks (Np) and the length of the radii of inertia (Px,y,z) of the 3D plots. Power spectral density was estimated on 5 minutes sequences by the Blackman-Tukey method in the VLF, LF and HF band by numerical integration. SDNN, PNN50, MSSD time-domain parameters were also evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post hoc test for multiple comparisons. A direct relationship between increasing lesion’s severity and progressive collapsing of both 2D and 3D Poincarè' plots was observed. L, A and Np, showed the highest significant differences between all groups, while lower significance was found for spectral and time-domain parameters. These data suggest that Poincarè' Plots analysis contains relevant information related to different heart rate variability dynamics in normal and stroke subjects with different lesion’s severity.

Title of the Paper: Filtration Material for Capturing Dangerous Substances and Its Use in Area of Population Protection


Authors: Lucie Jurikova, Jakub Rak, Milan Adamek, David Sevcik

Pages: 59-66

Abstract: This article is focused on the use of filtration material, namely on dangerous substances and capturing of their particles. It provides an overview of possible principles of capturing dangerous substances using filters (membranes). At the same time it introduces the types and sizes of the particles of the dangerous substances closely related to this subject. This contribution also outlines the problem that is being solved in the research, namely the use of filters (membranes) in an improvised shelter in such a way so that they create protective elements for sheltered persons. The article deals with the testing of filters for the various types of dangerous substances in cooperation with chosen companies and the university in order to ensure credible data and information.

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Linear and Comminuted Bone Fracture Status by Using One Dimensional Ultrasound System


Authors: Maheza I. Mohamad Salim, Alwin A. Alexander, Sallehuddin Ibrahim, Eko Supriyanto

Pages: 67-74

Abstract: This paper presents a method for the evaluation of linear and comminuted bone fractures by using one dimensional ultrasound system. This paper includes an investigation on the attenuation of 1 MHz ultrasound wave propagating through a normal and fractured bone, through utilising the pulse echo method. Two types of bone fracture were included in this study, namely the linear fracture and comminuted fracture, which were simulated using a goat’s bone encased in gelatin. The reflected echoes were analysed to determine the power spectral density and ultrasound attenuation based on insertion loss method. The ultrasound attenuation resulting from a normal and fractured bone showed that average signal power on the fractured bone was lower than the normal bone by 4.3dB for both linear and comminuted fractures. In addition to that, this study also shows that one dimensional ultrasound can be used to determine the fracture site precisely by observing the difference in ultrasound attenuation value. The fracture site was observed having higher ultrasound attenuation due to the presence of spaces and gaps that allowed the ultrasound to pass through it and further attenuated. Based on the result, the ultrasound signal attenuation showed a potential for use to detect bone fracture; nevertheless, further studies are still needed to determine the type of fractures. The present finding shows the potential of one dimensional ultrasound as a simpler and safer method in diagnosing bone fracture as an adjunct to x-ray imaging, especially for pregnant mothers and paediatric cases.

Title of the Paper: Biomechanical Analysis of the Custom Made Insoles on Gait of Pes Cavus Patients


Authors: Jungkyu Choi, Ji-Yong Jung, Hwa-In Kim, Yonggwan Won, Jung-Ja Kim

Pages: 75-82

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of lower limbs on a subject group of pes cavus based on plantar foot pressure and electromyograph (EMG) activities by the effects of the custom-made insoles. The subjects were 10 females who were diagnosed bilateral pes cavus by a podiatrist among 30 females in their twenties (an age 22.3±0.08 years, a height 159.9±2.2 cm, a weight 50.8±3.69 kg, a foot size 237.9±3.27 mm, mean±SD). The subjects walked on a treadmill under two different experimental conditions: walking on Normal Shoes (NS) condition and walking on normal shoes with the Custom-made Insoles (CI) condition. When walking, plantar foot pressure data such as the contacting area, the maximum force, the peak pressure and the mean pressure were collected using Pedar-X System (Novel Gmbh, Germany) and EMG activities of four lower limb muscles such as Rectus Femoris (RF), Tibialis Anterior (TA), Musculus Biceps Femoris (MBF) and Medial Gastrocnemius (MG) were also gathered using Delsys EMG Work system (Delsys, USA). Accumulated data was then analyzed using paired t-test in order to investigate the effects of each of experimental condition. As a result of the analysis, the maximum force, the peak pressure and the mean pressure of midfoot increased by the contacting area increased of midfoot when the custom-made insoles were equipped, so the contacting area and the maximum force of forefoot and rearfoot decreased. In addition, the peak pressure and the mean pressure of rearfoot decreased significantly. In case of EMG, all the muscle activities decreased significantly when wearing the custom-made insoles. An important contribution of this study is an analysis of all the changes in muscle activities caused by wearing the custom-made insoles. Thus, the result of this study can be applied for designing functional insoles and lower extremity orthoses for individuals with pes cavus.

Title of the Paper: Advanced Computational Simulation and Applications of Fibrous Composite Materials


Authors: Karel Frydrýšek, Vladimír Kompiš, Zuzana Murčinková

Pages: 83-89

Abstract: This article is focused on: 1. Advanced computational simulation of composite materials reinforced by short fibres. It will be shown how the reinforcing elements change stiffness of material and thermal conductivity by changing mechanical and thermal properties of both, matrix and fibres, percentage of reinforcing material and dimensions of reinforcing elements. Special computational models developed in the Slovak Republic using 1D continuous source functions along fibre axis enable to simulate fibres with matrix very effectively. 2. Application - New design of external fixators invented in the Czech Republic. These fixators are intended for the treatment of open, unstable and complicated fractures in traumatology and orthopaedics for humans or animals limbs. The new design is based on the development of Ilizarov and other techniques (i.e. FEM, shape and weight optimalization based on composite materials, nanotechnology, low x-ray absorption, antibacterial protection, etc.).

Title of the Paper: Prevalence of External Parasites on the Yellow-Necked Mouse (Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834) in Relation to Its Spatial and Temporal Distribution


Authors: Daniel Cătălin Gheoca, Ana Maria Benedek, Ioan Sîrbu, Anamaria Lazăr

Pages: 90-97

Abstract: The yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) is one of the most important species in the rodent communities from Transylvania (Romania), especially in mountain areas, inhabiting all types of forests as well as neighbouring open habitats with rich and high vegetation. Although there are a few studies concerning the small mammals from Transylvania, little is known on A. flavicollis population dynamics, both in mountains and lowlands. The aims of the present study were to survey the distribution and dynamics of the yellow-necked mouse in the research area, to detect possible patterns of spatial and temporal distribution for the groups of external parasites infesting this species and to test the influence of some variables on the prevalence of external parasite taxa.

Title of the Paper: Some New Solutions of a Reaction Diffusion Model for Controlled Drug Release Using Travelling Wave Coordinate Transformation


Authors: Chontita Rattanakul, Yongwimon Lenbury

Pages: 98-107

Abstract: Being able to deliver drugs to a targeted cell in the body would certainly enhance the future treatment of patients, especially those suffering from cancer. In such complex physical areas there is often a lack of well-formed conceptual ideas and sophisticated mathematical modelling in the analysis of the fundamental issues involved in the drug delivery process. Progress in many of these areas will be accelerated by means of accurate applied mathematical modelling which embodies the correct physical and chemical principles. In 2003, Göran Frenning proposed and numerically solved a mathematical model of the drug dissolution and release processes. The model consisted of two coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. Later, Chontita and Lenbury (2012) made use of appropriate transformation with travelling wave coordinate to derive analytical solutions the an equivalent set of ordinary differential equations when the wave was assumed to be moving at constant speed. Here, we present some new travelling wave solutions of the model of controlled drug release, in a planar geometry, for certain different cases in which analytical solutions can be derived exactly. We investigate how different values of important physical parameters effect the shapes of the travelling waves which should be useful for the proper design of the drug release system.

Title of the Paper: Characterization and Evaluation of Antibacterial Properties of Polyacrylamide Based Hydrogel Containing Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles


Authors: I. I. Muhamad, S. A. Asgharzadehahmadi, D. N. A. Zaidel, E. Supriyanto

Pages: 108-113

Abstract: Polyacrylamide based hydrogel was synthesized using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). N,N'-Methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as cross-linker, ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N,N',N'-tetra-methylethylenediamine (TEMED) as initiators. Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles were added to the hydrogel network to investigate the antibacterial activity of synthesized polymer. Hydrogels were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The physical and chemical characterizations of the prepared hydrogels give valuable information on the morphological structure of polymer, swelling behavior, bonding formation of gels and physical properties. The incorporation of NaCMC enhanced the hydrogel properties physically and chemically in the aspects of swelling capacity, strength and flexibility. This study also investigated the antibacterial activities of prepared hydrogels against Escherichia coli which is a Gram negative food pathogenic bacteria. For this purpose, agar diffusion test or agar plate test was carried out and inhibition area for each hydrogel was determined. Polyacrylamide hydrogel with NaCMCshowed a lowinhibition zone towards E. coli. However, interestingly, the addition of 0.03 gram of MgO nanoparticles into the hydrogel network resulted in about triple inhibitionstrength relatively.

Title of the Paper: Computational Study of Arzanol – An Antioxidant Compound of Natural Origin


Authors: Liliana Mammino

Pages: 114-125

Abstract: Arzanol is a naturally-occurring biologically active acylphloroglucinol isolated from Helichrysum italicum. It exhibits anti-oxidant, antibiotic and antiviral activities. The current work presents the results of a computational study of arzanol, aimed at identifying conformational preferences and other interesting molecular characteristics. Calculations in vacuo were performed at the HF and DFT levels of theory with full optimization (fully relaxed geometry) and at the MP2 level as single-point calculations on HFoptimized results. Calculations in solution were performed with the Polarisable Continuum Model, at the HF level, considering three different solvents chloroform, acetonitrile and water. The results show that only one conformer is populated in all the media – the conformer comprising all the stabilizing effects, among which the presence of three intramolecular hydrogen bonds plays dominant role. The results also show good consistency with the general trends identified for acylphloroglucinols, both in vacuo and in solution.

Issue 4, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: Biodiversity Analysis Supporting Species-Subspecies Uncertainty in Findings Data


Authors: Boris Milašinović, Toni Nikolić, Krešimir Fertalj

Pages: 127-134

Abstract: The number of geocoded localities rises significantly and considerable research has been devoted to addressing spatial distribution of various types of species (endemic, threatened, invasive, etc.) and determining ecological niche of the species. An object model presented in the paper enables pairing data from GIS layers with floristic findings bound to any taxonomic rank and thus easing complex analysis regarding ecological niche and biodiversity. Biodiversity as the variety within the living species is commonly defined in relation to specific spatial unit. Due to uncertainty or impossibility to determine finding at the exact subspecies level, special care has been devoted to expressing biodiversity at the species level with data uncertainty regarding species-subspecies relation. The model structure, input and output interface and types of results and analysis have been described. An algorithm for calculation of minimal and maximum possible species count in an area has been described.

Title of the Paper: Heart Failure Patients and Reproducibility of the Heart Rate Turbulence Indexes


Authors: Graziamaria Corbi, Gianni D'addio, Nicola Ferrara, Mario Cesarelli

Pages: 135-142

Abstract: Although cardiac automaticity is intrinsic to various pacemaker tissues, heart rate and rhythm are largely under the control of the autonomic nervous system. Cardiovascular oscillations following spontaneous ventricular premature complexes (VPC) are characterized by a short-term heart rate fluctuation known as heart rate turbulence described by the so-called turbulence onset (TO) and slope (TS). Despite a recent written consensus on the standard of heart rate turbulence measurement, reproducibility data are lacking. Aim of the paper was a reproducibility study of heart rate turbulence indexes in heart failure patients. Eleven heart failure patients underwent two 24h ECG Holter recordings, spaced 7±5 days. A paired t test was used to assess the clinical stability of patients during the study period and the number of PVC in Holter recordings’ couples. Both TO and TS indexes were calculated for each isolated VPC, and due to their skewed distribution, reproducibility of median and mean TO and TS was studied by Bland-Altman technique. Results showed that median heart rate turbulence indexes might be preferred to commonly suggested mean values and that, although TO showed lower bias value than TS, TS can be considered much more reproducible than TO, comparing limits of agreements with normal values. This preliminary results suggest the use of medians instead of mean heart rate turbulence indexes values and a reliability of the turbulence slope greater than the turbulence onset index.

Title of the Paper: Data Mining for Association Analysis of Pes Planus and Pes Cavus


Authors: Ji-Yong Jung, Jung-Kyu Choi, Yonggwan Won, Jung-Ja Kim

Pages: 143-150

Abstract: Association rule mining is a useful and widely used method to provide beneficial information in the knowledge discovery area related to diagnosis and prediction of disease. In this study, we analyzed the correlation among symptoms occurred between pes planus and pes cavus by using Apriori algorithm. Database based on clinical diagnosis records about the 1310 patient foot with pes planus or pes cavus were constructed. We extracted disease data, including scoliosis, femoral interversion, anterior knee pain, hallux valgus, intoe, outtoe, plantar fasciitis, pelvic malalignment, lower back pain, heel pain, gastrosoleus tightness, forefoot varus, forefoot valgus, quadriceps tightness, leg length discrepancy, and cerebral palsy, with more than one symptom (pes planus or pes cavus) in total data. In case of only one side of the foot was diagnosed with pes planus or pes cavus, data was excluded. SPSS Clementine 11.1 program was used to analyze the correlation among disease. The results show that both pes planus and pes cavus was correlated with plantar fasciitis from explored association rule. Also, we confirmed other symptoms commonly occurred with pes planus or pes cavus from patients’ diagnosis data, and there was an organic associative relation between these diseases. These results could be used as a basic data to make secondary foot disease prevention program and to prevent complication of pes planus or pes cavus. In addition, discovered rule can be used for new application with many data set and applied to useful assistant knowledge on clinical decision making process of a specialist. There are some limitation that we performed analysis for only patients who were diagnosed with pes planus and pes cavus, also some data which are not subdivided into foot deformity was included in total data.

Title of the Paper: Application of Stepper Motor for Continuous Passive Motion Splint


Authors: V. Sladecek, J. Oplustil, K. Frydrysek, J. Kracmar, R. Fousek, L. Pleva, T. Kubin, O. Ucen

Pages: 151-156

Abstract: This article reports about the new design of continuous passive motion splint invented at the VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Trauma Centre of The University Hospital in Ostrava and MEDIN a.s. This motion splint is designed for rehabilitation of lower limb, especially for knee rehabilitation. This continuous passive motion splint was designed with possibility to attach it with external fixators. These external fixators are used for treatment of open and complicated bone fractures. Next this article reports about possibility of use and control of stepper motor which is used like a propulsion unit of this continuous passive motion splint.

Title of the Paper: Cervix Segmentation in Ultrasound Data Based on Numerical Technique


Authors: C. Pahl, A. Jeffree, Y. Myint, E. Supriyanto

Pages: 157-163

Abstract: Cervical cancer is the second-most common cause of death among women worldwide. Since ultrasound is the fastest and cheapest method for imaging internal organs, the usage of this modality increases significantly. Here, a numerical technique based the level-set method is shown to overcome the obstacle of extracting the human cervix in ultrasound images. The active contour based algorithm will be explained and discussed subsequently. Results show that a cervix extraction can be performed semiautomatically.

Title of the Paper: Microscopic Investigation and Automated Image Analysis of Hydrocarbon - Tolerant Marine Cyanobacteria Mixed Populations Cultivated in the Absence and Presence of Gasoline or Diesel


Authors: Simona Ghită, Iris Sarchizian, Ioan I. Ardelean

Pages: 164-175

Abstract: This paper shows some morphological and functional aspects of cyanobacteria isolated and selected from two different sources, with special aim to enrich the natural populations with respect to marine cyanobacteria that are able to tolerate (2-5 years) gasoline or diesel up to 5% (w/v). These enriched populations where studied with respect to morphology and physical relationship with hydrocarbon surfaces and with quantum dots using bright field and epifluorescence microscopy, coupled to automated digital image analysis. Phototrophs microorganisms appear to be an important change in marine microbiota as a result of gasoline presence. Filamentous cyanobacteria both with or without heterocysts have been analyzed using CellC and ImageJ software for cell morphology, intracytoplasmic inclusions and interactions with hydrophobic structures, nanoparticles and oil hydrocarbon.

Title of the Paper: Volterra Integral Equations in an HIV Model


Authors: Rujira Ouncharoen, Thongchai Dumrongpokaphan, Yongwimon Lenbury

Pages: 176-183

Abstract: We investigate the effects of continuous delay in the viral production in the dynamics of an HIV infection model. We focus on the qualitative behavior of the solutions. This result can be used to explain the complexity of continuous intracellular interaction in the HIV infection process with delay. Numerical simulations are carried out to confirm the main results.

Title of the Paper: Probabilistic Approach (Simulation-Based Reliability Assessment Method) Applied in Engineering Design and Economics


Authors: Karel Frydrýšek, Josef Kašík, Horst Gondek

Pages: 184-191

Abstract: Firstly, this paper reports about the probabilistic solutions of the problems in engineering design (i.e. applications in mining industry - hard rock disintegration process, and applications in biomechanics & traumatology - designing of the external fixators applied in traumatology and orthopaedics).Secondly,this paper reports about the new probabilistic application in economics (evaluation of an investment project). Theory and applications of the Simulation-Based Reliability Assessment (SBRA) Method ( probabilistic Monte Carlo approach) are presented in the solutions and evaluations. Applications of the SBRA method in these areas of are new and innovative trends in mechanics and economics.