International Journal of Education and Information Technologies

ISSN: 2074-1316
Volume 9, 2015

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

Main Page

Submit a paper | Submission terms | Paper format


Volume 9, 2015

Title of the Paper: Modern Methods Used in Foreign Language Learning in the 21. Century


Authors: K. Myska, L. Samkova

Pages: 209-215

Abstract: The article deals with individual online instruments determined for foreign language learning via the internet (elearning) in most suitable conditions if possible. First section of the article deals with possibilities of the individual instruments and determines criteria that the suitable online instrument in foreign language learnining should carry out. Second section of the article deals with description of selected online instruments and with its individual possibililties for use in foreign language learning.

Title of the Paper: Evaluation of Algorithmic Thinking of Students Using Control Testing Environment


Authors: Stepan Hubalovsky, Ondrej Korinek

Pages: 205-208

Abstract: Evaluation of students' exercises from programming is for teaching difficult. There is a number of possibility of checking programmer knowledge and skills of students. The teacher has to determine criteria of evaluation. The criteria of evaluation depends on choose approach in learning of programming. Different evaluation criteria they will be used for students of object - oriented programming, command programming or declarative programming. The paper deal with problems of checking of students' programmer exercises. Different means and tools for checking are mentioned. The universal testing environment and possible testing exercises are presented in the paper too. Results of the research are mentioned in the final part of the paper. Research deal with comparison of results of student learned by two different approaches of programming using universal testing environment with respect to algorithmic thinking of student. The presented approaches of programming are Objects-First and Objects-Later.

Title of the Paper: Astronomy Communication: The REAL Knowledge Hub


Authors: Dario La Guardia, Marco Arrigo, Manuel Gentile, Simona Ottaviano, Valentina Dal Grande, Mario Allegra

Pages: 200-204

Abstract: May 2014 saw the launch of a new online environment devoted to astronomy education and outreach, called REAL, Educational Resources for Laboratorial Astronomy, hosted on (http://www. It was created, within the project "Astronomy and Society, Between Tradition and Technological Innovation", funded by the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR). REAL was implemented by the Institute of Educational Technology of the National Research Council of Italy in collaboration with the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Astronomical Observatory "G. Vajana" in Palermo and the Astrophysical Observatory in Turin. The system was designed to satisfy both the need to reach a wider public and people interested astronomy, and the need to establish a communication channel between scientific facilities and schools of every grade.

Title of the Paper: Primary E-learning from the Perspective of the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy


Authors: Marie Hubalovska

Pages: 195-199

Abstract: The paper deals with possibility of implementation of the LMS (Learning Management System) Moodle and e-learning to education in Primary School in Upice, Czech Republic. The theoretical part of the paper describes creation of e-learning exercise in author system Hot Potatoes and the implementation of the exercises to LMS Moodle. Furthermore the paper highlights the theory of the Revised Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. The paper presents the results of the research – analysis and classification of the e-learning Hot Potatoes exercises in terms of the Revised Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Then the results of the analysis are compared with success rates of pupil achievement in given exercises.

Title of the Paper: Principle and Computer Simulation Model of Variation of Delastell’s Cipher BIFID


Authors: M. Musilek, S. Hubalovsky

Pages: 186-194

Abstract: An interesting possibility to develop system programmer thinking of students of computer science is integration digital technology to non-trivial pencil and paper cipher system. The computer support gives us the opportunity of experimenting and creative modifications of the original idea. The paper describe introducing method of system approach, modeling and computer simulation to learning of algorithm development and programming for student of Computer Support of Archives specialization. The approach is based on creation of simulation program for encryption and decryption different types of ciphers. The paper describes the principles of polygraphic Delastell’s cipher BIFID and its variation as well as possibilities of encryption and decryption of the cipher using the computer simulation program.

Title of the Paper: Teachers’ Perception on Computational Thinking in Science Practices


Authors: Se Young Park, Young Jeon

Pages: 180-185

Abstract: Scientific literacy in science education can be improved through the process of scientific knowledge formation and a series of inquiry process, such as having a question to a phenomenon and forming a problem, designing an experiment by analyzing models for the problem solving, and preparing evidences with the experiment results and discussing to find the answer. These activities were organized and proposed as eight practices of Science and Engineering by NRC. Among eight science practices, 5th practice is related to computational thinking, and the term of computational thinking is also uprising concepts in computer education. Yet, these two concepts are relatively new to many teachers. Thus, in this research, the authors attempted to find relationship between 5th science practice and nine computational thinking concepts. The survey result found that science teachers and computer teachers were sharing similar visions in terms of relevancy of computational thinking concepts on 5th science practice.

Title of the Paper: Algorithm Development and Programming at Elementary Education in the Czech Republic


Authors: P. Hanzalova, S. Hubalovsky

Pages: 175-179

Abstract: The paper deals with algorithm development and programming at elementary schools in the Czech Republic. First, it describes the teaching of information and communication technology in this type of school, according to national curricula. Lists the topics to be discussed and how many of them are directly or partially concerns to algorithms. Furthermore submit proposals for the development of algorithmic thinking, which is important for understanding of computers functionality but mainly programming functionality. The paper shows specific examples that demonstrate easy way for implementation of algorithms into education without explanation the principles of algorithms. Emphasis on principles of constructivist teaching, creativity and key competencies of pupils.

Title of the Paper: Electro-Technical Kits in Science Didactics and Technology Lessons


Authors: K. Radocha, J. Sedivy, S. Hubalovsky

Pages: 171-174

Abstract: The article deals with the place of electronic kits of didactic system of science and technical subjects. Briefly summarizes measurements with the support of computer kit at laboratory measurement or demonstration wiring electrical circuits. Within general and didactics electro-technical kits among didactic material resources. The term "didactic tool" is a very range-wide and rich in content. The default term for this issue. Educational resources are an important didactic categories.

Title of the Paper: Long Term Effects of Systems Engineering Practices Disregard in Spain within a European Centered Aerospace Market


Authors: Jose M. Arias

Pages: 159-170

Abstract: Project management involves customer needs, resources cost and completion time. Systems engineering takes care of customer needs. But it is also a means to ensure that milestones along the duration of a project are well respected. This would ensure a sufficient amount of time for testing in factory before the different subsystems under test are finally taken on site for assembly. The consequences of not respecting this time are analyzed in the form of a system dynamics diagram. The unavailability of systems engineering training courses is considered here as one of the reasons why the national aerospace industry lacks productivity. This mismatch between Industry and Academia can then be addressed by systems engineering education.

Title of the Paper: Using Emerging Mobile Technologies to Enhance Collaborative Learning. A Study Case in a University Environment


Authors: R. Berjón, M. E. Beato, M. Mateos, A. Fermoso

Pages: 151-158

Abstract: Since emerging mobile technologies are completely introduced in our society, the Mobile Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (MCSCL) is a fact that we must keep in mind. However it is necessary to have available adequate technological tools. In this work, we present a communication tool (called SCHOM) it was entirely developed by us. SCHOM uses different kind of channels for communication (instant messaging, push notifications and integration with social networks), it ensures the digital anonymity, and for instance, a user could send a message to other one knowing only his identity. Other characteristic of the tool is that can be used without restrictions, from anywhere, anytime and any device and it is fully customizable so it can be adapted to other environments. We also analyses the tool with a study case in a university environment, a small group of students and teachers of first and fourth course of Computer Science Degree participated. In our study, the main advantage of the tool showed by students and teachers was relative to enhancing communication and the possibilities to share information and knowledge in agile way. Moreover both students and teachers expressed the useful of the tool in every kind of messages.

Title of the Paper: Matching Learning Activities with Mode of Delivery: Developing Robust Hybrid Instruction Using Nicenet


Authors: Alberth, Emil Wiramihardja, Wa Kuasa, Siam, Asrun Lio, Aris Badara, Dasmin Sidu, Amri Tanduklangi, I. Ketut Suardika

Pages: 143-150

Abstract: The extended debate over the effectiveness of online versus face-to-face classroom instruction reaches a consensus and found combining face-to-face and online strategy (hybrid) is preferable than opting for either mode alone. As a result, hybrid instruction has gained popularity, as it combines the strengths of face-to-face and online instruction. However, our current understanding of this mode of delivery is still in its infancy despite the ubiquity of hybrid instruction in the realm of higher education. For instance, finding what learning activities are best conducted face-to-face and what learning activities flourish online remains largely unexplored in the EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classroom. To appropriately match learning activities and mode of delivery, two different types of hybrid methods were developed using Nicenet for teaching the unit English Grammar. Participants were divided into two cohorts. The first group attended hybrid type 1 during the first three sessions and attended hybrid type 2 the following three sessions. The second group did the reverse. Such a design enabled all participants to experience both models of hybrid instruction. At the end of the study, participants were required to fill in a questionnaire designed to gauge their perceptions on the suitability of the learning activities relative to the mode of delivery. Follow up interviews were also conducted with a number of sample participants. It was found that lectures and presentation of group discussion are best conducted face-to-face, whereas group discussion, quizzes, and assignment submissions are better conducted online. Online and face-to-face consultations with the lecturer can be equally viable.

Title of the Paper: Customizing Course Redesign and Flipped Classroom Models to Improve Learning Environment


Authors: Taeil Yi, Jerzy Mogilski

Pages: 135-142

Abstract: This article is about a successful adoption of course redesign model of mathematics courses at the Department of Mathematics in the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB), a Hispanic serve university in the south Texas. Around 2007 National Center for Academic Transformation (NCAT) recommended six models for using of information technology to redesign courses in mathematics: the supplemental model, the replacement model, the emporium model, the fully online model, the buffet model, and the linked workshop model. Because of the local educational environment and resources none of the six models could be implemented exactly like it was described by NCAT. It was required to modify a model or combine several models together to provide to our students more supplementary materials through online and not reduce contact hours. This approach had a lot of common with the ‘flipped classroom’. The Department of Mathematics in the UTB has worked on a series of course redesign projects from developmental mathematics course to graduate courses in MS degree program mainly with this model for last 8 years. The authors discuss how the specific model has been developed and adopted, what course contents are developed, and the impact of course redesign on students’ success and their study habits. The grade comparison between traditional in-class courses and re-designed courses, and some suggestions for those who want to do their own course redesign in a similar situation are also presented.

Title of the Paper: The System for Measurement Using a Computer in the School Laboratory as a Platform for Measuring Temperatures During the Water Heating


Authors: Radek Nemec, Stepan Hubalovsky

Pages: 129-134

Abstract: The system for measurement using a computer in the school science laboratory is low-cost platform used for many measuring. One of these is measuring temperatures during the water heating. This is important to explanation for temperatures during the water heating. It is used to justify the differences in dependency of the temperature during the heating. To facilitate understanding of the dependency we suggest using of a graphical representation. The system allows showing the dependency in real time by graphical representation.

Title of the Paper: Amazigh Noun Inflection in the Universal Networking Language


Authors: I. Taghbalout, F. Ataa Allah, M. El Marraki

Pages: 122-128

Abstract: Amazigh is one of the official languages of Morocco. However, it is still considered as less resourced language. Thus, it is time to develop language resources and applications for processing automatically this language in order to ensure its survival and promotion by integrating it into the new information and communication technologies (NICT). In this context and in the perspective of achieving an automatic translation of the Amazigh language, we have undertaken the necessary work to incorporate this language into the UNL (Universal Networking Language) structure, which is developed inside the UNDL (Universal Networking Digital Language) foundation. The mission of the UNDL is to allow anyone to access to the information available on the Internet using her/his mother tongue, which will contribute in promoting multilingualism and reducing access constraints to information due to language barriers. In this paper, we focus on the Amazigh noun inflection paradigms to build the first Amazigh dictionary for the UNL project.

Title of the Paper: Modelling E-portfolio for a Linear Algebra Undergraduate Course


Authors: S. Domınguez-Garcıa, M. I. Garcıa-Planas, R. Palau, J. Taberna

Pages: 115-121

Abstract: Due to the need of teachers to enhance student autonomy making them to reflect on the process of learning, has been made more common the use of e-portfolio in the learning and assessment of students. Recently, we have worked with different software, facilitating the generation and use of e-portfolio. In this paper, the recent experience in the use of e-portfolio for undergraduate students of the Universitat Polit`ecnica de Catalunya are set.

Title of the Paper: The Design and Delivery of Hybrid PBL Sessions in Moodle


Authors: Khulood Khalil Al-Dous, Mohammed Samaka

Pages: 105-114

Abstract: In this study we provide a technical support for teachers to practice problem-based learning (PBL) in their real learning sessions at schools, universities, or any other learning environment. The provided support would enable teachers to dynamically instantiate PBL sessions based on a PBL meta-model. The PBL meta-model include the definition of all possible elements within a PBL process which are phase, activity, resource, tool, and artifact. It is originally built based on the best existing PBL practices and well-known models. The process of practicing a PBL session involves two steps, the first is designing a PBL session and the second is delivering the session into students to execute it in a learning environment. In this study we choose to provide the PBL technical support within an environment where both teachers and learners are familiar with, this is instead of a standalone environment which would be time and effort consuming for them to use. A Learning Management     System (LMS) called Moodle was extended in this study to support PBL as it is commonly used in many universities and schools with a comfortable plugin mechanism for developer. We developed a complete Moodle plugin called (PBL lesson plan) that support the design and delivery of PBL sessions or PBL lesson plans with different view privilege for both teacher and student. The wide usage of Moodle would increase the usage of our developed plugin. The developed PBL lesson plan plugin was tested and evaluated positively by teachers and students in real sessions conducted at Qatar University.

Title of the Paper: Physical Modelling of Normal and Pathological Gait Using Identification of Kinematic Parameters


Authors: C. A. Collazos, R. E. Argothy

Pages: 100-104

Abstract: This paper presents the one-dimensional gait kinematic principle, in order to identify the kinematic parameters for normal and pathological (transtibial amputation) gait of two subjects with similar anthropometry. Each type of gait is associated with uniform linear motion and uniformly accelerated motion. We used the Manuela Beltrán University Biomechanics Laboratory. The developed physical model complements the information of the data acquisition system and is used for biomechanics modelling.

Title of the Paper: User’s Needs in Education and Training Domain of Apulian ICT Living Labs


Authors: Giovanna Avellis, Adriana Agrimi, Francesco Surico, Marco Di Ciano, Gaetano Grasso

Pages: 95-99

Abstract: Living Labs is a new approach to research activities which allows the end users to participate to the development and experimentation of innovative solutions devised for the inhabitants of a given territory. Through the exchange of ideas and knowledge and the aggregation among researchers, enterprises and organized groups of citizens, the specifications of new products and services are developed, the first prototypes are realized and evaluated, and new innovative technological solutions are experimented. The action Apulian ICT Living Labs aims to implement the open innovation paradigm, where end users co-design a solution to the user needs in collaboration with a SME and a research laboratory. In this context, we have analysed the user needs in one of the eight domains of interest of the project, namely the Education & Training (E&T) domain. This paper introduces the Apulian ICT Living Labs and reports the themes and the technologies elicited from  the end users in the E&T domain to address the end users needs. Apulia Future Learning 3.0 thus arises as a solution to cluster the individual local livinglabs in Apulian ICT Living Labs and submitted to ENOLL for networking with advanced experiences in Europe to share a collaborative approach in finding demand-based innovative solution. Conclusions outline the crucial novel aspect of Living Labs, that is the involvement of the end users in all  the stages of the development projects.

Title of the Paper: Supporting Students’ Learning-Pathway Choices by Providing Rule-Based Recommendation System


Authors: Abdelrahman Osman Elfaki, Khaled M. Alhawiti, Yahya M. AlMurtadha, Osman A. Abdalla, Asim A. Elshiekh

Pages: 81-94

Abstract: Educational Data mining has been proved as a practical solution in handling educational obstacles.  Selecting undesirable learning pathway is a real precarious problem. The complication of such problem backs to its nature, as it is discovered after graduation or in the middle way of the learning pathway which makes the correction is almost impossible and it is too late to take corrective actions. Selecting undesirable learning pathway influences even the whole community by either low quality of graduates or graduates working in unsuitable career. This paper is introduced a rule-based recommendation system for students’ learning pathway at University of Tabuk, at Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. As a research methodology: first, decision tree has been selected as a data mining algorithm. Second, required data has been collected from University of Tabuk, Faculty of Computers and Information Technology. Third, decision tree has been developed based on the questionnaire’s data. Last, induction rules have deduced from the tree paths to provide a recommendation advices. The proposed recommendation has been validated using test samples which are part of collected questionnaires. From the rules there are seven interesting findings have been presented. Expected result is enhancing the overall learning process at University of Tabuk by providing suitable learning pathways.

Title of the Paper: Design of a Low Cost Thermal Impedance Measurement Tool for Practical Lesson in Engineering School


Authors: Ph. Dondon, J. Micouleau

Pages: 73-80

Abstract: We present here a low cost electronic design for a new practical lesson called “thermal characterisation of power transistor thermal impedance”. First, we describe the design using COTS components and open source software for practice of temperature measurement and characterisation of electronic component. We explain how we checked and validated the designed tool. Lastly, didactical and financial aspects are discussed within the context of economic difficulties and budget reduction for education.

Title of the Paper: The Optimization of the Educational Process of Security Technologies , Systems and Management


Authors: P. Svoboda, B. Svobodova, and J. Sevcik

Pages: 69-72

Abstract: In this article, a research focused on the needs of private security industry is presented. In the first part of the paper the research of the PSI knowledge can be found, whereas the second part contains proposal of educational simulators for improving the PSI knowledge. The research presented in this paper is based on the research in Tomas Bata University in Zlin and European Training Standards for private security industry.

Title of the Paper: Designing a Methodology Framework for Distance Education Modules


Authors: Lúcia Pombo

Pages: 62-68

Abstract: Current information and communication technologies, including the internet and its services (web 2.0, email, conferences at a distance, etc.) open new perspectives in the field of education, by promoting communication and interaction between all participants at a distance. It is not the technology itself that will define the quality of teaching and learning in distance education, but the methodological approach that supports it. This paper aims to propose a methodological framework to implement in distance education modules supported by online pedagogy elements linked to innovative teaching methodologies.  Its goal is to bring some contributions to those who are in charge of course design, providing a useful framework to improve active and technology enhanced collaborative learning in similar environments.

Title of the Paper: Innovative Instrument, Classification, Model and Methodology for Strategic Modeling for Technology New Ventures


Authors: S. Tsolova

Pages: 50-61

Abstract: This work presents the results from a research in the field of strategy modeling for technology new ventures in its final stage – presenting an innovative e-system for strategy modeling for technology new ventures (technology startup companies) developed by the author. The innovative methodology for strategy modeling for technology new ventures is developed following a developed by the author innovative algorithm for strategy modeling for technological startup companies and number of instruments and process modifications implemented in the system in the strategic modeling process. The algorithm and all included in the system instruments and modifications in the process, have been confirmed by a research, conducted amongst 153 participants (136 from Bulgaria and 17 from other countries). The presented system is aimed towards introducing a unified system for strategic modeling, including a smooth transition between the processes of strategic analysis, strategic formulation and strategic implementation. This is achieved by: (1) introducing an unified instrument for strategic analysis and identification of the key characteristics and competitive advantages for the companies, developed by the author; (2) application of a threedimentional framework for categorisation of the basic typological strategies for technology new ventures, together with further full development of the typological strategies, based on a modified model and process of balanced scorecard methodology, developed by the author and (3) a process guiding the entrepreneurs from typological strategies characteristics towards concrete strategies characteristics and activities for their technology new ventures, which represents a smooth transition towards the next stage of strategic management – the strategic implementation stage. The presented innovative e-system can be used as a basis for further development of the innovative e-system for strategy modeling towards a full strategic management e-system, specifically designed for technology new ventures, covering all stages of the strategic management process.

Title of the Paper: Use of a Robotic Platform in Dyslexia-Affected Pupils: the ROBIN Project Experience


Authors: Massimo Pistoia, Stefania Pinnelli, Gianfranco Borrelli

Pages: 46-49

Abstract: The ROBIN project was a joint effort that involved private and public entities, aimed to develop a computer-based software platform to promote a multi-faceted representation of data to build learning exercises supported with a feedback provided constantly by an anthropomorphic robotic system. The platform was devised in order to build a playful and stimulating learning environment able to support children affected by dyslexia.

Title of the Paper: Resorting to IMS-LD to Standardize the Learning Process of Serious Game Design in Education


Authors: Nabila Hamdaoui, Mohammed Khalidi Idrissi, Samir Bennani

Pages: 36-45

Abstract: Nowadays, with the challenge of the twenty first century and the effects of globalization, educational systems become constantly under pressure. The resort to face-to-face teaching and learning no longer quenches the thirst and the adaptation to the fast development of technological tools becomes crucial. The needs to serve the learners, become urgent to make learning activities more motivating, funny and engaging for the students who are continuously surrounded with every form of new technology. Serious games are one of those tools that can be considered very effective when it comes to engage and motivate the students. In serious games as well as in any e-learning tool the pedagogical issues must be well integrated during the design process. In our paper we will first of all present some frameworks that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of serious games in educational field before trying to standardize the teaching learning process. We will demonstrate how the IMS learning design can be used during the design process of educational games to facilitate and encourage the collaboration between games designers and the pedagogues for the sake of creating adaptive learning experiences.

Title of the Paper: Use of Petri Nets for Evaluation Modeling of the Student Transition Through the Web Environment


Authors: Zoltán Balogh, Milan Turčáni, Martin Magdin

Pages: 29-35

Abstract: The paper describes student transition evaluation modeling through LMS by the use of Petri nets. First, a universal student transition model had to be created through the LMS. This model created in Petri nets is modular. This means that a model could be added which evaluates the student on the bases of transition through LMS. According to these results, each states of the student could be simulated and on the bases of his steps it is possible to evaluate him. Petri net (PN) is a graphical and mathematical modeling tool that has such characteristics as concurrent, asynchronous, distributed, parallel, nondeterministic, and stochastic. Although, as an ideal system which would be close for every student is utopian for sure. It is still possible to approach the perfect personalization of teaching by means of correctly designed models by the use of Petri nets.

Title of the Paper: A Development of Online Lessons of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat Local Wisdom


Authors: Chaiwat Waree

Pages: 21-28

Abstract: The objectives of this research are: to develop and discover efficiency of online lessons of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat local wisdom to meet with criteria at 80/80 and to study satisfaction level of students by using online lessons of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat local wisdom. The target group herein was 40 students who studied in Academic year of 2013 and interested in online registration.  Target group was determined by using purposive sampling. Tools used in this research were 20 items of post-test contained in online lesson, student’s satisfaction evaluation form towards online lessons usage. Data analysis was conducted to find efficiency of online lessons as defined by criteria at 86.00 / 87.50 and student’s satisfaction level towards online lesson usage of 40 students. The obtained mean was 4.46 and standard deviation was 0.68. The results showed that the efficiency of online lessons of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat local wisdom was at 86.00 / 87.50 that was higher than defined criteria at 80/80. In addition, Overall satisfaction of students towards online lessons usage was in the highest level with the mean of 4.46 and standard deviation at 0.68. The obtained results were able to be used as guidelines for further development of learning activities management of other courses.

Title of the Paper: Safety Research of Population According to Population Differentiation in Czech Republic


Authors: Lenka Brehovská, Zuzana Freitinger Skalická, Kristýna Šimák-Líbalová, Libor Líbal

Pages: 12-20

Abstract: The aim of the project is to analyse the current status of the evacuation planning from the emergency zone planning according to the population differentiation and the population readiness for potential disruption of functionality of critical infrastructure, to suggest new methods of evacuation planning along with incorporating new aspects of health evacuation protection and design manuals for the population on the methods to handle emergencies with the disruption of critical infrastructure in the context of ethical issues. The evacuation is preferably planned for the following groups of population: children under 15, patients in health care facilities, persons placed in social institutions, persons with disabilities. Medical support during evacuation primarily involves ensuring the provision of pre-medical health care assistance, transportation to medical facilities and the provision of hygienic and epidemiological measures. The responsible entity is the municipality in cooperation with the Emergency Medical Service and a relevant public authority.

Title of the Paper: Multimodal E-Assessment Interfaces: An Empirical Investigation


Authors: Dimitrios Rigas, Amirah Algahtani

Pages: 1-11

Abstract: Due to the availability of technology, there has been a shift from traditional assessment methods to e-assessment methods designed to support learning. With this development there is a need to address the suitability and effectiveness of the   e-assessment interface. One development in the e-assessment interface has been the use of the multimodal metaphor. However, the associated effectiveness of multimodality in terms of usability and its suitability in achieving assessment aims has not been fully addressed. Thus, there is a need to determine the impact of multimodality on the effectiveness of e-assessment and to identify the benefits to the user. This paper investigates the role and effectiveness of multimodal metaphors in e-assessment by empirically evaluating the effect of multimodal metaphors in combination or on their own. Usability includes efficiency, effectiveness and user satisfaction. The empirical research described in this study consisted of two experiments with 30 users each to evaluate the effect of multimodality, avatars with whole body gestures, earcons and auditory icons. The experimentation also assessed the role that an avatar could play as a tutor in e-assessment interfaces. The results demonstrated the effectiveness and applicability of metaphors to enhance e-assessment usability. This was achieved through a more effective interaction between the user and the assessment interface.