International Journal of Energy and Environment

ISSN: 2308-1007
Volume 9, 2015

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 9, 2015

Title of the Paper: The Green Revolution – Converting Post-Industrial Sites into Urban Parks – a Case Study Analysis


Authors: L. Loures, A. Loures, J. Nunes, T. Panagopoulos

Pages: 262-266

Abstract: In last decades’ sustainability and redevelopment strategies have been focused mainly in the built urban environment and its artificial components. Still, in recent years, we have seen, a growing interest in the introduction of nature in cities. In fact, the accelerated growth of metropolitan areas all over the world, poses several problems not only at the environmental level but also at economic and social ones. This scenario enables the creation of a continuously changing landscape as a result of complex and interacting natural processes, coupled with planned and unplanned actions by man that influence the way urban areas grow and many times sprawl beyond former city limits, acquiring dimensions and forms that do not contribute to their sustainability. In this regard, considering that urban parks and greenways have been progressively recognized as strategic planning elements for achieving sustainable development in metropolitan areas, constituting a very important element to the quality of life of an increasingly urbanized society, this research presents the analysis of six Urban Parks that have been developed in former post-industrial sites, assessing the impact that these project had, not only in urban attractiveness but also in land value, while studying how does urban green spaces contribute to ecological, social and economic sustainability of metropolitan landscapes. Besides general approaches used considering data collection and analysis, other methods were used, throughout the present research (interviews with key participants; project analysis; and site interpretation), bearing in mind not only the importance of the project but also the importance attributed to public participation and involvement in determining the way public and private powers should manage the urban fabric and the built environment. This research enabled us to conclude that the relevance and the social acceptability of a certain project should never be underestimated and that urban nature, especially urban parks are extremely important for citizens’ quality of life, contributing to increase land value and sustainable city development. Furthermore, this research highlighted that Urban Parks constitutes a valued green space/infrastructure, both by experts and the general public, which contributes to strengthen the overall quality of specific urban spaces.

Title of the Paper: Impact of Urbanization on the Stream Water Quality in the Lesser Carpathian Region


Authors: P. Miklanek, P. Pekarova, J. Pekar, V. Kovacova

Pages: 256-261

Abstract: The paper deals with the following subjects: Statistical analysis of the selected pollution determinands in two sampling sites of the Gidra River (above and below Pila village); 2. Assessment of relation between discharge and concentrations of selected water quality parameters for the Gidra stream; and 3. Impact of the anthropogenic activities on the water quality in the Gidra stream. The analysis was based on the water quality time series, monitored by the Institute of Hydrology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (IH SAS) weekly (fortnightly) during the period 1991–1993 and 2004–2006. In the samples of surface water, the chemical pollution determinands were analysed, e.g.: nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, sulphate, chloride, phosphate, pH.

Title of the Paper: Effect of Different Management Practices on Soil Properties of Mediterranean Paddy Fields


Authors: J. Sánchez-Llerena, A. López-Piñeiro, A. Albarrán, D. Peña, J. M. Rato-Nunes, L. Cox, M. A. Rozas, A. Brito

Pages: 250-255

Abstract: Rice crop cultivation in Mediterranean environments traditionally involves intensive and expensive tillage practices that may change for the worse the soil's original physical and physicochemical properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the short- and long-term effects of aerobic rice production, combined with conventional and no-tillage practices, on soils' physical and physicochemical properties. A field experiment was conducted for three consecutive years (2011, 2012 and 2013), with four treatments: anaerobic with conventional tillage and flooding (CTF), aerobic with conventional tillage and sprinkler irrigation (CTS), aerobic with no-tillage and sprinkler irrigation (NTS), and long-term aerobic with no-tillage and sprinkler irrigation (NTS7). Highest TOC (15.6, 15.5 and 16.2 g kg-1), AH (1.60, 1.33 and 1.76 g kg-1), AF (1.03, 0.993 and 0.998 g kg-1) and total N (0.143, 0.106 and 0.143%) values were obtained by NTS7 in all three years, thus the mid- and long-term implementation of no-tillage combined with sprinkler irrigation may be considered to be a sustainable management system for rice farming under semi-arid Mediterranean conditions.

Title of the Paper: Pollution Reduction Management: The Map of Feasible Coalition Solutions


Authors: P. Šauer, P. Fiala

Pages: 246-249

Abstract: The paper is a contribution to solving such problems of pollution reduction management, where there are multiple polluters located in a territory. They have a choice to contribute to the goal of pollution reduction or with individual projects or with coalition projects. There is a standard requirement to achieve cost-effective (optimal) solution or, especially from the practical decision point of view, to realize some "second best" solution, i.e. solution which costs are not too much higher than the costs of the optimal variant. The model of reverse combinatorial auctions can serve as a theoretical basis for searching such solutions. The paper develops the model of the reverse combinatorial auction further, when presenting algorithm of calculation of all feasible coalition solutions. The result is labelled "map of feasible coalition solutions". The potentials of such the map for support of practical decision making about specific environmental protection investment programs and ideas how the map could be used for building background models with better controlled parameters for economic laboratory experiment for developing theory in the respective area are discussed at the end of the paper.

Title of the Paper: The Necessity of Expensive Environmental Regulations


Authors: R. Kříž, P. Lešáková

Pages: 242-245

Abstract: These days little attention is being paid to the cost efficiency of the environmental protection policies in the Czech Republic. The paper presents and discusses a possible approach to formulating cost-efficiency policies using the abatement cost concept. For easy understanding the approach is demonstrated on the particular policy case in the Czech Republic: the air quality policy focused on dust emission reduction in the Moravian-Silesian Region. Based on the findings that there exist considerable differences in the abatement costs of the particular measures (in industry, household and transportation) to reduce emissions the paper identifies a significant potential for cutting excessive costs of regulation.

Title of the Paper: Behavior of Clomazone in Paddy Soil under Different Management and Irrigation Techniques: Preliminary Results


Authors: D. Peña, A. López-Piñeiro, A. Albarrán, J. Sánchez-Llerena, L. Cox, J. M. Rato-Nunes, M. A. Rozas, S. Gaytán

Pages: 237-241

Abstract: Agricultural Mediterranean soils are very poor in organic matter and are at a high risk of groundwater contamination from intensive annual pesticide applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of compost olive mill waste amendment (COW) on the sorption and leaching of clomazone in a paddy soil with different irrigation and tillage systems. The soil had been amended with 80 Mg ha-1 with COW. Sorption of clomazone in amended treatments (kf = 6.71 - 8.52) was greater than unamended treatments (kf = 2.82 - 3.74). The COW addition significantly reduced the amount of clomazone leached. Therefore, the COW addition could be beneficial in reducing the mobility of clomazone in paddy soils, thus, decreasing the risk of groundwater contamination by this herbicide. More differences results between treatments are expected to be found after long-term implementation of the management techniques (tillage vs. no-tillage, sprinkler vs. flooding irrigation).

Title of the Paper: Analysis of the Waste Disposal in the Context of European Standards


Authors: Baťa R., Kropáčková J.

Pages: 231-236

Abstract: For waste treatment exist a number of recommendations arising from the results of scientific research in this area. These theoretical findings are further implemented in legislation and should be practically applied. To what extent are these theoretical findings really applicable, practically being explored within this paper. The comparison is based on examining the theory of the recommended status with the empirical data identified in the framework of the conducted case study.

Title of the Paper: Identification of Risk of Port Logistics in the Republic of Guinea


Authors: Jaromir Mares, Aly Hawa Camara

Pages: 225-230

Abstract: The following article focuses on the leaching characteristics of the two types of fly ash from the lead metallurgy in the Republic of Guinea which were studied using two standardized leaching tests. These are the European standard EN 12457 and the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP), defined as the U.S. EPA. The leaching tests were complemented by the thermodynamic modeling (EQ3NR), which allowed to determine the sociation of elements in the solution and the degree of the supersaturation of the solution with respect to solid phases. The results of the model were verified by identifying newly created phases using x-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscope. The PHREEQC-2 model was used for the simulations of arsenic and other elements ‘absorption on the newly created amorphous iron oxyhydroxides´ surface. The results of the leaching tests show that lead and other metals are extracted in the presence of organic acids and in extremely basic solutions of Ca (OH)2. Based on the results it is not recommended to store the examined waste in the environment of organic - rich soils or to use them in basic conditions.

Title of the Paper: Evaluating the Potential and Value of Innovative Renewable Energy Systems; a Strategic Market Perspective


Authors: George Papageorgiou, Evripides Papachristoforou, Athanasios Maimaris

Pages: 220-224

Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study carried out in Cyprus on measuring the potential and value of innovative, clean, renewable, energy systems and energy saving products from the perspective of the customer. The aim of the project was to investigate whether consumers are ready or willing to invest in renewable energy options. Through a market survey, the drivers are explored behind the investment such as reduction in home energy consumption (bills), and reduction in the negative environmental effects of the current way of electricity production. Further, incentives for renewable energy adoption are evaluated based on consumer’s preferences and the level of awareness for renewable energy. Some of the main findings include the following: Consumers want more energy options from their Electricity Suppliers, they are relatively familiar with renewable and energy saving technologies; they tend to postpone the investment in renewables for economic reasons; the energy saving and renewable technology products market is growing very fast; cost drives most purchase decisions. The better understanding of the renewable energy market will help businesses to develop more attractive products and government to provide appropriate incentives for persuading consumers to invest. In this way, renewable energy products will really take off and our world will be saved from the catastrophic effects of environmental pollution.

Title of the Paper: The Influence of Road Grade and GPS Signal Reconstruction on Real Driving Behaviour and Emissions


Authors: L. Della Ragione, G. Meccariello

Pages: 211-219

Abstract: In recent years in Italy the progress of the automobile industry, in the field of reduction of emissions values, is very remarkable. Nevertheless their evaluation and reduction is a key problem, especially in the cities, that account for more than 50% of world population. The aim of this study is to investigate the parameters influencing the real driving emission monitoring with particular attention towards the influence of road gradient. Several experimental campaigns are carried out with some cars instrumented for both the acquisition of kinematic data, polluting emissions in continuous, and GPS latitude, longitude and altitude data to obtain precise geolocalization and slope variation during a path. Moreover this paper deals with the definition of a quantitatively approach for the reconstruction of GPS coordinates and altitude, in the context of correlation study between driving cycles / emission / geographical location. Also cluster analysis of kinematic data is realized, keeping in mind new corrected GPS data, and a basic statistical analysis of exhaust emissions of CO, THC, NOx, CO2 acquired on road.

Title of the Paper: Sustainability Concepts Integration in the Upgrade of an Industrial WWTP


Authors: A. G. Capodaglio, V. Torretta, A. Callegari

Pages: 204-210

Abstract: The purpose of wastewater industry is to protect surface water quality, aquatic life, beneficial and recreational uses of waterways, and primarily comply with local water emission standards. Being an industry aimed at the protection of the environment, wastewater’s industry should nevertheless also strive to minimize, in addition to water quality impacts, any other possible environmental impacts (i.e. odours, outgoing wastes, etc.), last but not least pernicious air emissions, such as CO2, methane and nitrogen greenhouse gases, and mitigate other likely impacts resulting from energy and chemical use in treatment processes. This paper describes a case study carried out in Europe, where the critical analysis of an industrial WWTP’s present conditions, during the course of an evaluation of its upgrade possibilities to improve regulatory compliance, led to an initially unexpected, but ultimately sustainable, intervention proposal. According to the formulated proposal, process improvement, energy recovery, and overall savings and GHGs emissions reduction could be simultaneously achieved with a relatively simple intervention.

Title of the Paper: Catalytic Pyrolysis of Heavy and Residual Hydrocarbons in the Presence of Metal Chlorides


Authors: Kirill V. Chalov, Yury V. Lugovoy, Valentin Yu. Doluda, Alexander I. Sidorov, Mikhail G. Sulman, Yury Yu. Kosivtsov, Esfir M. Sulman

Pages: 196-203

Abstract: In the present paper we report on the results of the process of heavy and residual hydrocarbons thermocatalytic processing with metals chlorides KCl, NaCl, MgCl2, AlCl3, FeCl2, FeCl3, ZnCl2, CoCl2 ? NiCl2. The higher yield of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons was obtained in the presence of iron subgroup metal chlorides. On the base of the experimental data the optimal parameters of oil-containing waste pyrolysis were defined as follows: temperature – 500 °?; catalyst – CoCl2 with the catalyst loading 5% (wt.) of the substrate weight. The kinetic investigation of the pyrolysis process at the optimal conditions was carried out. The activation energy of the catalytic pyrolysis decreased by 20-30 kJ/mol in comparison with non-catalytic process.

Title of the Paper: New Investigation on Global Efficiency in Thermal Power Plants, Addressing the Environmental Impact of Burning Alternative Fuels through CFD


Authors: Jesús M. Blanco, Lakhdar Remaki, Francisco Peña

Pages: 179-195

Abstract: Traditional fossil fuels stocks are limited so are considered “non-renewable” whereas bio-fuels are “renewable” sources. Nowadays, the possibility of converting fuel oil into natural gas fired power plants has risen due to a global concern about the “greenhouse effect”. On the one hand, the main advantages are that the acidic emissions are almost annulled while monetary incentives were introduced into particular statutory regulation schemes. On the other hand, disadvantages are mainly the high traces of ashes that gas matrix contains, causing the exhaust gases strong abrasive scratches over hot surfaces. A particular gas derived from biomass obtained in fluidized beds has been revealed as a credible option. First of all, a full theoretical evaluation of the global efficiency associated to a power plant of reference depending on the fuel burned has been performed and improved significantly with the proper determination of the so called “difficult evaluation losses term”, demonstrating the suitability of fuel replacement in terms of efficiency. The main contribution corresponds to a CFD study, validated through the results provided by a scaled experimental facility, fully monitored, in order to compare the environmental impact of two of these fuels, justifying its use for further characterizations of other fuels prior to its full implementation.

Title of the Paper: Population Protection with Emphasis on Environment Safety


Authors: LenkaBrehovská, Marie Charvátová, Ladislav Karda, Zuzana Freitinger Skalická, Libor Líbal

Pages: 171-178

Abstract: The third call of the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic concerning the support of research, experimental development and innovation, was announced for the period 2013 – 2015. The Department of Radiology, Toxicology and Population Protection, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, submitted an application for research concentrated on population protection according to population differentiation. The aim of the project is to analyze the current status of the evacuation planning from the emergency planning zone according to the population differentiation and the population’s readiness for potential disruption of functionality of critical infrastructure, to suggest new methods of evacuation planning incorporating new aspects of health protection during evacuation and to design manuals for the population on how to handle emergencies with a disruption of critical infrastructure as well as ethical issues arising in this context. One of the basic tools of population protection against the negative effects of emergency situation is evacuation planning. It is a set of selected information prepared and procedures. All persons come under evacuation except works who take part in the rescue operation and person who control the evacuation. Social institutions are specific service for citizens providing social services to socially disadvantaged people. These institutions take to themselves responsibility for the care of these people. The social care must be provided in depending on the type of service at all times. It cannot be unreasonably cancel or interrupt. In case of an accident at a nuclear installation is required to each device was adequately prepared.

Title of the Paper: Government Initiatives Pertaining to Construction Waste Minimization in Malaysia


Authors: Nurzalikha Sa’adi, Zulhabri Ismail

Pages: 165-170

Abstract: Construction industry is one of the main contributors to waste streams in Malaysia. Construction activities caused a significant amount of construction waste increased since over the last two decades. Despite of being a waste contributor, construction waste has also been result into serious environmental issues in Malaysia. There are some actions been taken by the government but the results have not been translated in the form of strong legal instruments and enforcement. Therefore, it is important for government to address this issue by providing the legal instrument pertaining to construction waste minimization. This research has been conducted to proposed framework of implementation government initiative on construction waste minimization in Malaysia. Hence, this paper present the existing initiative by the government pertaining to construction waste minimization in Malaysian construction industry. Mixed methods of qualitative and quantitative research design by way of semi-structured interviews and supported by distribution of questionnaire for validation stage have been adopted in this research for proposing the framework of implementation government initiative on construction waste minimization in Malaysia. Results indicate that the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Corporation and Construction Industry Development Board responsible to provide guidelines pertaining to construction waste minimization in Malaysia. The findings maybe used in the formulation of government initiative in addressing the construction waste minimization problem in Malaysia and indirectly improving the quality of construction waste management in Malaysia.

Title of the Paper: Study of the Fractures Effect on the Capacity and Security Geological Storage of the CO2 in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs


Authors: Djebbas Faycal, Zeddouri Aziez, Khelifa Cherif

Pages: 156-164

Abstract: Mitigation climate change requires reducing the emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere, according to the actual scenario, the emissions of CO2 will be doubled in the horizon of 2050 to reach more than 50 milliards tones of CO2 per year, and we will get 1000 ppm in the end of 21st century, to keep the warming climate below 02°C we MUST keep the CO2 concentration at 450 ppm. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is in the focus of interest of a growing scientific community due to its potential contribution to mitigate global warming, deep saline aquifers and oil & gas reservoirs are considered to be one of the most attractive options for reducing CO2 emissions in the atmosphere and have been practiced in different locations worldwide. Algeria is one of the most advanced countries in this kind of projects, where the project of In Salah is the world’s largest onshore CO2 storage project, this project was started in 2004 with a storage capacity of 1 million tons of CO2 stored per year. Natural fractures have a large impact on the fluid flow through a reservoir and the modeling of natural fractures is important in the context of CO2 storage for two primary reasons. Firstly, fracturing of the cap rock possibly due to increased injection pressure may lead to the unwanted leakage of CO2. Secondly, and particularly for tight reservoir formations, fractures represent critical fluid flow pathways and constitute a large fraction of the total storage volume.

Title of the Paper: Extended Drought Periods in Grasslands: Impacts on the Number of Photosynthetically Active Leaves and on Leaf Senescence in Grass and Clover Species


Authors: Regula M. Blösch, Olivier Riesen, Urs Feller

Pages: 147-155

Abstract: Water availability in soil is a key aspect in the context of global change. More frequent and more severe extreme events including droughts, flooding and heat waves must be expected for the next decades in some regions. Since a high percentage of the area used for agriculture is covered by grasslands, the response of grass and legume species to severe drought is important for the evaluation of drought impacts. Differences between the species considered (Lolium perenne L., Dactylis glomerata L., Phleum pratense L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L.) in their response to a low water potential in the root medium were evident. In general the number of photosynthetically active leaves per plant decreased under drought. This decrease was partially due to a smaller number of new leaves produced and partially to senescence of the oldest leaves. The strongest reduction in the number of active leaves was observed in Trifolium repens, while Trifolium pratense was less susceptible. The grasses were even less affected than the clover species. Temperature of sun-exposed leaves was increased in drought-stressed plants as a consequence of decreased transpiration. The elevated temperature may cause additional effects on leaf metabolism (e.g. inactivation of Rubisco activase). Modifications in leaf senescence and leaf emergence under drought stress are species-specific and influence plant performance during the stress and the subsequent recovery phase.

Title of the Paper: Computation of Planetary Atmospheres by Action Mechanics Using Temperature Gradients Consistent with the Virial Theorem


Authors: Ivan R. Kennedy

Pages: 129-146

Abstract: Computations of atmospheric profiles based on action mechanics – coupled with a novel version of the virial theorem – question the current paradigm proposing a common mechanism of surface warming for all greenhouse gases. A development of the virial theorem suggests a new basis for establishing temperature gradients from equilibrium between molecular mechanics and gravity, modified by work-heat transfers resulting from convection or changes in molecular phase such as condensation or evaporation. The virial-action model suggests that recent global surface warming could have been caused by increased water vapor in the atmosphere affecting its morphology or variations in local frictional coefficients of the Earth’s urban and rural landscapes with compressive heating, rather than changes in greenhouse gas content alone. The virial-action hypothesis is logically tested in a computer model using data from Earth and other planets developing a novel algorithm for calculating atmospheric profiles recalling Lagrange’s calculus of variations and least action. All planets with an atmosphere are shown to exhibit surface warming compared to their black body temperatures, irrespective of greenhouse gas contents.

Title of the Paper: Transforming Implicit to Explicit Knowledge in Economics – The Case of Novel Adsorbents Production within an Industrial Ecology Framework


Authors: D. Sidiras, F. Batzias, C. Siontorou, G. Apostolopoulos, M. Fardis, D. Hatziavramidis, D. Economidis, L. Kamarinopoulos, Y. Pollalis, D. Batzias, M. Bidikoudi, N. Boukos, P. Falaras, C. Tsiodra, K. Chatzizaharia, S. Papadaki

Pages: 120-128

Abstract: This work deals with transforming implicit to explicit knowledge in techno-economic issues with emphasis on cost-benefit analysis supporting optimization techniques. Initially, the minimization of the Cost to Acquire all the Explicit Knowledge (CAEK), needed to do a prescribed job, is introduced as an economic optimization criterion. The main difficulties appearing in such an optimization process are noted and an algorithmic procedure is presented as an aid for solving such problems. Subsequently, the case of a novel lignocellulosic adsorbent production is analyzed as an implementation paradigm taking place within an Industrial Ecology framework, where waste lignocellulosic materials and thermal energy are used to give a product suitable for environmental protection. Next, the economic subsidy required to support such an investment is determined with a new economic approach, based on non-monotonic function used to estimate benefits (resulting from materials/energy saving/substitution, sustainable regional development, and environmental risk decrease), in the time course. Last, the exploration/amelioration of this product is examined, putting emphasis on the R&D aspect, always from a techno-economic point of view, where the cost of required examination/measurements of raw/intermediate/final materials and the benefit from quality improvement are the principal conflict variables in the respective tradeoff technique adopted herein, with the corresponding information granularity level representing the independent explanatory variable to be optimized.

Title of the Paper: Measurements of Infiltration Efficiency of Percolation Facilities for its Safety Operation in Real Conditions


Authors: Gabriel Markovič, Daniela Kaposztásová, Zuzana Vranayová

Pages: 112-119

Abstract: Permeability of infiltration zone is qualitative and quantitative prerequisite for infiltration of rainwater in infiltration facility. Permeability is represented by the infiltration coefficient kf, which represent efficiency of infiltration facility, respectively ability of subsoil infiltrate incoming rainwater. So it is always necessary to consider from the view of local conditions about suitability of proposed drainage concept. The main goal of this article is to show how depend an infiltration efficiency of percolation facility to infiltration coefficient kf in real conditions.

Title of the Paper: Laser Refractography: Principles and Applications in Studies of Physical Processes in Liquids


Authors: Rinkevichyus B. S., Pavlov I. N., Pudovikov D. E., Raskovskaya I. L., Tolkachev A. V.

Pages: 102-111

Abstract: This paper is devoted to the description of the method of laser refractography and the results of its application in experimental studies of physical processes in transparent liquids. Laser refractography is a novel information-measurement technique for diagnosing transparent optically inhomogeneous liquids and gases, based on the probing of fluid flows with a structured laser radiation (SLR), digital recording of the refraction images (refractograms) obtained, and their computer processing with a view to reconstructing the parameters of the flows. Block diagrams of measuring laser systems are shown, their operating principles are described, and libraries of typical refracrograms are presented. The results of numerical modeling of the temperature fields distribution around the heated and cooled bodies in liquid are presented. Laser refractography has been used to visualize temperature gradients in thin boundary layers in the vicinity of heated of cooled bodies placed in a transparent liquid, to determine the heating or cooling time of various bodies in liquids, to establish the setting time of laminar and turbulent convection conditions, and to find out the position of local temperature changes in liquids.

Title of the Paper: Levels of BTEX in Ambient Air in Two Urban Sites Located in the Center Zone of Orizaba Veracruz, Mexico During Autumn 2014 and Assessment of the Carcinogenic Risk Levels of Benzene


Authors: Cerón-Bretón J. G., Cerón-Bretón R. M., Aguilar-Ucán C. A., Montalvo-Romero C., Ramírez-Lara E., Rustrián-Portilla E., Houbron E. P., Cima-Mukul C., Anguebes-Franseschi F., Ramírez-Elías M. A., Rangel-Marrón M.., Rodriguez-Guzman A., Cruz-Cruz A. I.

Pages: 90-101

Abstract: Atmospheric levels of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and p-xylene) were measured in two urban sites located in Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico using an active sampling during autumn 2014. 1.5 h-samples were collected using carbon packed cartridges at 07:00 h, 14:00 h and 17:30 h, and then analysed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The relative abundance of BTEX followed the order for both sites: benzene> toluene >p-xylene>ethyl benzene. Mean concentrations for benzene were 74.50 !g m-3 and 91.16 !g m-3, for toluene were 5.32 !g m-3 and 19.74 !g m-3, for ethylbenzene were 3.34 !g m-3 and 2.52 !g m-3 and for p-xylene were 2.25 !g m-3 and 2.72 !g m-3, for the first and the second site, respectively. For the first site, benzene and ethyl benzene did not show a pecifically behaviour and the highest mean levels for toluene were obtained during the afternoon sampling period. p-xylene showed the highest levels during midday. For the second site, the highest concentrations of benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene were found during the midday sampling period. During the whole sampling period the influence of the vehicular sources was evident due to the highway Veracruz-Mexico which is located in these directions (SE, S, SSE) for both sampling sites. We can infer that the high benzene concentrations found in this study were influenced by vehicular traffic. The life time cancer risk due to exposure to ambient benzene in both study sites exceeded the acceptable values reported by USEPA and health concerns of benzene exposure should be considered in this region of Veracruz, Mexico.

Title of the Paper: Urbanization Effect on Urban Heat Island, A Case Study: Sakarya


Authors: Mahnaz Gümrükçüoğlu

Pages: 83-89

Abstract: The results of urbanization can be specified as the increase in air temperature, decreasing of wind speeds, rising buildings and usage of vehicles by the population increases and the development of the industry, as a consequence, the pollution of the atmosphere. Urbanization is causing a marked temperature increase in cities compared to rural areas by affecting parameters such as temperature, speed of wind and humidity, and is intensifying the heat island of the city. Considering the comparison of urban areas with the rural areas, urban areas are 1-2oC warmer than rural areas in terms of annual average temperatures and this difference may increase up to 6-12oC. In this study, we present the changes in temperature, precipitation, wind and relative humidity in the city of Sakarya due to rapid urbanization relative to the increase in population and determine the formation of urban heat island by comparing the data of two different counties. For the determination of differences between Adapazarı and Geyve counties- being the study areas - the monthly, annual and seasonal averages of minimum, average and maximum temperatures and changes in wind and humidity data of both stations were examined. The increase and decrease trends of these changes are indicated using linear regression, and its correlation with the increase of population and formation of heat island has been determined. When the data that belong to Adapazarı and Geyve meteorology stations defined as urban-rural stations are evaluated at the end of the study, the effect of urbanization appears to become evident especially in maximum-minimum temperature difference series. However, there is an inverse relationship in wind, rainfall and humidity values. It is possible to mention with regard to these values that the temperature increasing, in other words, heat island effect emerges in Adapazarı compared to the surrounding rural area.

Title of the Paper: Variation of the Thermal Performance of Open Multideck Display Case Due to the Procedure of Setting the External Air Velocity


Authors: Gustavo G. Heidinger, Samuel M. Nascimento, Pedro D. Gaspar, Pedro D. Silva

Pages: 73-82

Abstract: This paper reports the experimental results with an open multideck display case with dual air curtain. Manufacturers seek during the design phase of the equipment to certify its suitability to the testing standards with the lowest energy consumption and ensuring food safety. The testing standard ISO 23953 is usually followed to determine the thermal cooling load. The thermal cooling load depends on the procedure to set the external air velocity. According to ISO 23953, the mean horizontal air velocity, with the refrigerated display case switched off, shall be 0.2 m s-1. This paper reports experimental test results where the initial procedure of setting the air velocity followed two different methods. Considering that (1) the display case is initially switched off as required by ISO 23953 and (2) the display case is initially switched on and the external air velocity is adjusted to the required level using auxiliary fans. After reaching steady state conditions, the 24-hour tests began with the display case switched on. The comparison of experimental results for the two conditions (switched off relatively to switched on) provide the quantitative variation of frost formation (-24%) and condensed water (+180%) on the evaporator coil and how this phenomena affects the distribution and magnitudes of air velocity (+0.17 m s-1); inlet (+5.9°C) and outlet temperatures (+5.5°C); the components of the total sensible (+10%) and latent (+15%) heat loads; and the average product temperatures (+176%). The analysis of experimental data provides the necessary basis to conclude that the method how the initial procedure of setting the air movement is performed affects significantly the performance of the equipment under testing. The results show that air movement procedure defined in the standard may not be sufficient to set a constant air movement during the 24 hours test due to the interaction with the air curtain flow. This condition is reflected in a higher thermal cooling load.

Title of the Paper: An Integration of Electrical Installations Design of Intelligent Sustainable Buildings


Authors: Luminita Popa, Simona Sofia Duicu

Pages: 61-72

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of Integration of Electrical installations design dedicated to holistic approach of intelligent buildings in a sustainable virtual environment. Given the increasing complexity of durable built spaces, quality, cost, time and environment constraints, it is necessary to review the principles of classic design and product development. Significant improvements in the electrical installations design process can be achieved by integrating CAD and CAE models to work in perfect spirit of collaboration in achieving the original construction. The intelligent buildings design processes and electrical installations technologies use today, have varying degrees of success. It is commonly known that during electrical installations design process, engineers are using computer-aided graphics programs.

Title of the Paper: Assessing Soil Edaphic Properties’ Influence in Phosphorus Adsorption in Vertisols - Extremadura (Spain)


Authors: L. Loures, J. Nunes, A. López-Piñeiro, A. Loures, A. Navarro

Pages: 53-60

Abstract: Vertisols are soils rich in clay that are traditionally seen as one of the most fertile soils of Extremadura in Spain and as an important feature of rainfed agriculture, in which Phosphorus (P) constitutes the main limiting factor of crop nutrition, and its availability is a critical issue in the agricultural use of these soils. In this regard sorption prediction throughout soil properties constitutes an important factor for understanding fertilizer-P behavior in soils over time, and it serves as a guide for determining the amount of P available to plants and the effectiveness of P fertilizers. In tis regard the adsorption exerted by different components of the soil in the edaphic P is of vital importance, since it can serve as a guide for determining the amount of available P in the short and long term for plants and can even lead to more effective fertilization with this element. The present research investigates Phosphate sorption in surface-samples of nineteen Vertisols in Extremadura (Spain) using uniform-surface and two-surface Langmuir equations, which constitute important tools for estimating the availability of phosphorus and to adjust the concentration of phosphorus in the soil solution, determining the amount of phosphorus adsorbed per mass unit, as well as the constant related to the adsorption energy. The present research enabled us to conclude that phosphate sorption maxima (PAM) deduced from the uniform-surface Langmuir equation ranged from 150 to 2566 mg P kg-1, with a mean value of 1115 mg P kg-1. The calculated sorption maxima (TPAM) for the two-surface Langmuir model ranged from 410 to 15406 mg P kg-1 and the mean value (3845 mg P kg-1) increased about 3 times compared to the basic Langmuir equation. The two surface Langmuir model fit the sorption data better than the uniform layer model. Therefore, an underestimation of the P-sorption was observed when the traditional Langmuir equation was used. Total surface area was highly correlated with sorption maxima: r= 0.700*** for PAM and 0.900*** for TPAM. The prediction of the PAM and TPAM was improved by combining all or several of following soil properties: Fed, ACCE, clay, and total surface area in a multiple-regression analysis. The equations obtained could offer a rapid estimation of P-sorption in Vertisols.

Title of the Paper: Local Flood Warning Systems and their Implementation within the System of the Workstation for Flood Monitoring and Forecasting


Authors: Jakub Rak , David Sevcik, Blanka Svobodova, Jan Strohmandl

Pages: 44-52

Abstract: The article describes local warning systems against floods and their possible use in protection against floods. It is focused on the installation and configuration of the system parameters and interconnection of their data outputs with other applications. These are, in particular, applications for visualization and processing of outputs from a number of gauging stations and their subsequent projection on the base map. Furthermore, the article deals with a design and implementation of the central workstation for monitoring the outputs of the local flood warning systems. This workstation is supplemented by various applications suitable for flood forecasting, monitoring and protection. The workstation is a unique modular system, which enables central monitoring of the flood and thus increases the level of protection against floods. If required, it is possible to extend the workstation by means of various modules in accordance with the given locality and nature of floods, or on the contrary, the number of modules can be reduced when dealing with less extensive issues.

Title of the Paper: The Systemic Approach to Modeling of Compact Build-Up Development Areas and Planning of their Renovation


Authors: Sergei I. Matreninskiy, Valeriy Y. Mischenko, Evgeniy M. Chernyshov

Pages: 32-43

Abstract: This paper is devoted to the development of a methodological approach to modeling of the parts of areas of cities and settlements with their representation as a system complex city planning formation (CPF) with forming of its hierarchical object structure. Object structure includes buildings, constructions, engineering and road communications located in the area and operating under ambient conditions. It is suggested to evaluate the parts of the areas according to technical comfort which is determined by a combination of physical and moral deterioration of these areas. In accordance with this statement, a method of defining the quantitative indicators of the technical comfort of the given areas, represented as a system model of the CPF is developed. The systemic model of decision-making on renovation of the CPF and its constituent objects is developed to enhance the level of their technical comfort.

Title of the Paper: Design of an Optimal Control for Carbon Dioxide Enrichment in a Tomato Crop of Greenhouse Based on a Dynamic System


Authors: J. E. Moises Gutierrez Arias, Nubia Ilia Ponce de Leon Puig, Eladio Flores Mena, Monserrat Morin Castillo

Pages: 23-31

Abstract: The tomato model-space has been developed and it is called a big leaf-big fruit model because no distinction is made between leaf or fruit number. this model is formed by the mass balances: the non-structural biomass (nutrients) and the structural biomass of fruits and leaves. An optimal control for the carbon dioxide enrichment in a tomato greenhouse gives benefits, because it is possible get a saving for energy consumption and get more tomato production. The optimal control theory is applied to the integrated system crop-greenhouse, which is based in four variables state: the consumption of nutrients, the fruits and leaves growth and the carbon dioxide concentration, also it is necessary select a cost functional. This work contributes with the control law deduced from optimal control theory and it reduces the cost for CO2 enrichment. The parameters used for the simulations are taken from the Puebla region, in order to bring the system closer to reality for it application. Finally, the simulations was made in order to know the variables state behaviour, and the control law deduced is compared with a step input.

Title of the Paper: Investigation of Harmonized Layers (HLs) Impact on Quantum Efficiency for N or P Type Emitter of cSi Solar Detector


Authors: Bablu K. Ghosh, Saiful Sapri M. Zainal, Ismail Saad, Khairul Anuar Mohamad

Pages: 17-22

Abstract: It is expected that passivation layer impact prominently on efficiency of solar detector and surface charges apparently varied on emitter types as well as passivation. In connection with the higher energy edge absorption of solar spectrum and photo current generation, compatible (SiO2+Si3N4) harmonized layers (HLs) are introduced for surface effect mitigation and better photon management. Emitter junction effect on responsivity and/or external quantum efficiency (EQE) are also studied for PN, NP, P+N, N+P, P+iN and N+iP detectors with and without optimized coating/HLs even compared with the bare detectors. With optimized HLs, very intense solar band response and EQE are realized for both emitters and its junction characteristics are also found to be varied. These influences on photo response are found specifically. For P emitter EQE is found relatively better at the higher energy edge of solar spectrum while for N type emitter, improvement of EQE at near IR is precisely observed. Due to insertion of harmonized (passivation and anti-reflection; SiO2+Si3N4) layers (HLs), surface charges effect for N or P emitter of Si detectors are not profoundly realized.

Title of the Paper: Analysis of Wind Potential for City of Firoozkooh in Iran


Authors: M. Kamali, M. Dehghan Manshadi

Pages: 6-16

Abstract: There is increasing interest in wind energy investment by both public and private producers in Iran. However, the biggest challenge is the lack of up-to-date site specific data information on wind energy potential across the country. Hence the need for more studies to establish an updated site specific wind data information. In this paper, the 10min period measured wind speed data for years 2002, 2003 at 10m, 30m and 40m heights were analyzed for Firoozkooh city (latitude of 35°43′ N, longitude of 52°44′E and altitude of 1976m) in Iran County approximately 120km from Tehran (capital of Iran). The wind speed distribution was modeled using the Weibull probability function; wind density and Monthly wind energy production are estimated. The results show that the monthly value of shape parameter (k) ranges from 1.1054 in October 2002 (h=40m) to 2.6847 in June 2002 (h=10m), while the monthly value of scale parameter (c) varies from 2.9083m/s in January 2002 (h=10m) to 9.4082m/s in June 2002 (h=40m). Values of 232.18 and 169.32w/m2 are estimated for annual mean power density at height of 30m for years 2002 and 2003 respectively and the wind class was found to be 2 which not being deemed suitable for large machines, although smaller wind turbines may be economical in this area where the value of the energy produced is higher.

Title of the Paper: Electrical Measurement Method of Multiple Boundaries in Liquid Medium


Authors: Yumi Takizawa, Atsushi Fukasawa, Masaji Abe

Pages: 1-5

Abstract: This paper presents novel measurement method of multiple boundaries in liquid mediumusing both components of transmission and reflection signals. Electrical method is first shown to calculate the position of a boundary in a section of liquid transmission line. Then a method to calculated positions of two boundaries between three liquid zones. Configuration of measurement system is shown lastly for multiple boundaries formed in liquid medium with cascaded connection of the Chirp and the proposed methods.