International Journal of Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing

ISSN: 1998-4464
Volume 11, 2017

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 11, 2017

Title of the Paper: Modeling of Input Capacitance of IGBTs Under Dynamic Conditions


Authors: Ji Tan, Yangjun Zhu, Shuojin Lu, Qiaoqun Yu

Pages: 157-161

Abstract: Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) input capacitance has significant influence on device dynamic behaviors, and consists of two nonlinear components: the gate capacitance and the miller capacitance. Although these two components are capacitance with MOS structure, they behave differently with the isolated MOS capacitance. The reasons leading to this are the influences of the nearby semiconductor layers and the collector current dependency. An analytical model of the input capacitance for the dynamic cases has been derived, and the collector current dependency is quantified. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with the results obtained from numerical simulation of IGBT transient.

Title of the Paper: Electrohydraulic Actuators Affected by Multiple Failures: Proposal of an Alternative Model-Based Prognostic Paradigm


Authors: M. D. L. Dalla Vedova, P. Maggiore, F. Marino

Pages: 148-156

Abstract: Onboard electrohydraulic actuator (EHA) applied to primary and secondary flight command, and in particular the servovalves (SVs) regulating their hydraulic power, are complex devices and can fail in several ways: servovalves are critical components of the hydraulic servos and their correct operation is mandatory to ensure the proper functioning of the controlled servosystem. For this reason, a continuous monitor is typically performed to detect a servovalve loss of operation, but this monitor falls short of recognizing other malfunctionings. Often, a progressive degradation of a servovalve occurs, which does not initially create an unacceptable behavior, but eventually leads to a condition in which the servovalve, and hence the whole servoactuator operation, is impaired. Developing a prognostic algorithm able to identify the precursors of a servovalve failure and its degradation pattern is thus beneficial for anticipating the incoming failure and alerting the maintenance crew such to properly schedule the servovalve replacement. This avoids a servovalve failure in service, thereby ensuring improved equipment availability and minimizing the impacts onto the logistic line. To this purpose, authors propose a new model-based fault detection and identification (FDI) technique able to perform an early detection of two of the most common types of SV progressive failures (dry friction acting on servovalve spool and contamination of the first stage filter). The robustness of the proposed technique has been assessed through a simulation test environment, built on the purpose. Such simulation has demonstrated that the methodology has adequate robustness; also, the ability to early identify an eventual malfunctioning has been proved with low risk of missed failures or false positives.

Title of the Paper: Computational Fluid Dynamics-Based Simulation to Francis Turbine Under a Runaway Condition


Authors: Liying Wang, Bingyao Li, Weiguo Zhao, Qingjiao Cao

Pages: 142-147

Abstract: When the turbine operates in a runaway condition, the rotating speed of the runner increases sharply which results in serious threat to the safe of the units. In view of the instability phenomenon, a Francis turbine is simulated through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). According to the internal control equation, the stable calculation results under the rated operation are used as the initial condition in the simulation, when the runner torque reaches a certain minimum value, the runaway condition is coming. Through analyzing the distribution of streamline under different speeds with different openings and the pressure distribution in the blade pressure surface and suction surface, it can be concluded that there exists a serious collision and off-flow phenomenon when the water flows into the runner. Meanwhile, through analyzing the streamline of draft tube in the meridian surface, it can be seen that the water flow with high rotating speed impacts on the draft tube wall, which causes the rising of pressure in the wall. With the increase of the opening, the vortex in the straight cone section is gradually reduced, additionally, the retention and secondary reflux in the diffusion section are significantly improved.

Title of the Paper: Grayscale and Binary Enhancement of Dorsal Hand Vein Images


Authors: Marlina Yakno, Junita Mohamad-Saleh, Bakhtiar Affendi Rosdi

Pages: 129-141

Abstract: Difficulty in achieving a peripheral intravenous (IV) access in pediatric and some adult patients is a clinical problem. These difficulties may lead to some negative impacts such as fainting, hematoma and pain associated with multiples punctures. The use of near-infrared imaging device to aid visualization of an IV access usually suffers from low contrast and noise due to non-illumination and thickness of hand skin. This further complicates subsequent processing such as image segmentation. In this work, two methods are proposed in two different stages; grayscale enhancement and binary enhancement for correction of low contrast and noisy images. For grayscale enhancement, a combination of histogram-based and fuzzy-based contrast enhancement algorithms are applied on hand vein images. For binary enhancement, a combination of three techniques; Artificial Neural Network pixel corrector, Binary Median Filter and Massive Noise Removal, are applied on the binary hand vein images. Comparative analysis on test images using the proposed different contrast enhancement methods has shown superior results in comparison to its counterparts.

Title of the Paper: Single-Image Super Resolution Based on Group Sparse Representation via GAUSSIAN


Authors: Shuhua Xu, Fei Gao

Pages: 118-128

Abstract: As recently newly techniques, Group based Sparse Representation (GSR) algorithms were proposed, which achieved an excellent performance of sparse representation, exploiting the concept of group as the basic unit of sparse representation which is composed of nonlocal image patches with similar structures and capturing intrinsic local sparsity and nonlocal self-similarity of images simultaneously in one unified framework. Inspired by this, we apply GSR to single image super resolution reconstruction. However, the Euclidean distance metric applied in the process of group construction in traditional GSR failed to capture nonlinear structural information between image patches, leading to that the performances of these algorithms were sensitive to the geometric structure of images. In order to solve the problem, on basic of existing GSR, the nonlinear nonlocal self-similarity and local information of image patches were captured by exploiting effectively Gaussian kernel distance metric instead of the Euclidean distance metric in the paper. The paper presents Single-image Super Resolution based on Group Sparse Representation via GAUSSIAN (GSRGSiSR) algorithm. Compared with many state-of-art SISR methods, extensive experimental results validate that the proposed method can obtain better peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM).

Title of the Paper: Depth Stabilization of Biomimetic Underwater Vehicle Without Swim Bladder


Authors: Piotr Szymak, Tomasz Praczyk

Pages: 112-117

Abstract: In recent times, we may notice some new designs of underwater vehicles, which imitate living underwater organisms, e.g. a fish. These vehicles are called biomimetic. They are driven by undulating propulsion, imitating wavy motion of fins and they can submerge using ballast tank called an artificial swim bladder. In the paper, problem of depth stabilization of biomimetic underwater vehicle (BUV) which was not equipped with a swim bladder is undertaken. At the beginning of the paper, introduction to the research area of biomimetic underwater vehicles is inserted. Then, the mathematical model of BUV with the new undulating propulsion is presented. Next, the controllers for depth stabilization used in the numerical research are described. The BUV model and depth controllers were implemented in Matlab environment for making numerical tests. At the end of the paper, the selected results of the numerical research are presented and then, the conclusions are formulated.

Title of the Paper: Camera Calibration Approach Based on Iteration


Authors: Min Han, Jiangming Kan, Yutan Wang

Pages: 106-111

Abstract: Tsai’s camera calibration method is widely used, but the accuracy of calibration must be improved. To further improve the calibration accuracy, this paper first introduces Tsai’s calibration principles and analyzes the factors that affect the accuracy of Tsai’s calibration method. Then, an improved method of camera calibration based on iteration is proposed. The method solves the problem of approximating the principal point to the image center in Tsai’s method, and then the objective function and the initial value of search are designed considering the speed of the optimizing search and calculated amount. Finally, the experimental results show that the accuracy of the calibration method is significantly improved compared with Tsai’s.

Title of the Paper: Construction and Chaos Properties Analysis of a Quadratic Polynomial Surjective Map


Authors: Jun Tang, Jianghong Shi, Zhenmiao Deng

Pages: 100-105

Abstract: In this paper, a kind of quadratic polynomial surjective map (QPSM) is constructed, and the topological conjugation of the QPSM and tent map is proven. With the probability density function (PDF) of the QPSM being deduced, an anti-trigonometric transform function is proposed to homogenize the QPSM. The information entropy, Kolmogorov entropy (KE), and discrete entropy (DE) of the QPSM are calculated for both the original and homogenized maps with respect to different parameters. Simulation results show that the information entropy of the homogenized sequence is close to the theoretical limit and the discrete entropy remains unchanged, which suggest that the homogenization method is effective. Thus, the homogenized map not only inherits the diverse properties of the original QPSM but also possesses better uniformity. These features make it more suitable to secure communication and noise radar.

Title of the Paper: G3-PLC Physical Layer Signal Processing Based on Mixed Window Function


Authors: Feng Zhang, Shangjun Yang, Li Zhao, Feng Xiao

Pages: 94-99

Abstract: In the signal processing of G3-PLC physical layer, ROBO mechanism is often used to ensure reliability in strong noise interference. But for non-Gauss channels, ROBO processing has the limited ability to improve communication reliability. Aiming at the existing problem of ROBO, analyzing the noise spectrum in the power line, FIR digital filter is introduced into the physical layer of G3-PLC in this paper. FIR band-pass digital filter is used to remove the out of band noise, enhancing the effect of ROBO processing, thereby improving communication reliability. Through the analysis of the main lobe width and the stop band attenuation, the mixed window function with reasonable parameters is used in the design of the filter to improve the denoising performance of the filter. The reliability and efficiency of the algorithm are simulated by measurement power line noise. The results show that the FIR filtering algorithm based on mixed window function has the coding gain of 1 to 2dB.Combined with ROBO processing, the algorithm has a coding gain of about 7dB to 8dB.The FIR filtering of signal in physical layer based on mixed window function is an effective way to improve the reliability of G3-PLC communication under strong noise interference in practical applications.

Title of the Paper: Adaptive Waveform Selection Based on Relative Value Iteration


Authors: Bin Wang

Pages: 88-93

Abstract: Traditional radar lacks flexibility, and modern science and technology promote the progress of radar technology. Modern intelligent radar should transmit different waveforms in different working conditions. In this paper, we set up radar detection model based on range-Doppler resolution cell and make analysis of matched filtering. We introduce reward theory and establish stochastic dynamic programming model of waveform selection. In order to overcome the shortcoming of backward recursion method, we propose a relative value iteration method. In simulation part, we compare fixed waveform, relative value iteration method and the optimal waveform selection scheme. Simulation results show that the method we proposed has lower tracking errors. Meanwhile, relative value iteration method approaches the optimal waveform selection scheme. Finally, a summary of the full paper is presented.

Title of the Paper: Parallel Swarm Intelligence Algorithm for Grid Scheduling Based on Multiple Objectives Optimization


Authors: Xiaohong Kong, Hao Guo, Wenqiang Yang, Baochun Wang

Pages: 81-87

Abstract: Grid aggregates enormous resources spanning different geographic organizations and shares them together to provide powerful computation ability and tremendous memory with low cost. Grid is a potential trend for large-scale computation and complex engineering problems. But grid resources allocation and tasks scheduling are huge challenges due to its dynamic characteristic and heterogeneous architecture. This paper proposes a parallel ant colony algorithm and ant colony is divided into subgroups. Each subgroup searches solution space respectively to enhance the global ability of algorithm. Further, subgroups interchange the information periodically to speed the algorithm convergence and avoid local optimum based on message sharing. Dynamical heuristics information and adaptive pheromone updating are implemented to optimize multi-objectives for grid scheduling. The algorithm is simulated in master-slave system with distributed memory architecture and Gridsim environment. The experiment results are compared with different algorithms and prove that the proposed algorithm can improve the solution quality as well as load balance.

Title of the Paper: Simulation of Negative Influences on the CWDM Signal Transmission in the Optical Transmission Media


Authors: Rastislav Róka, Martin Mokráň, Pavol Šalík

Pages: 75-80

Abstract: This lecture is devoted to the simulation of negative influences in the environment of optical transmission media. An attention is focused on main features and characteristics of environmental influences at the CWDM signal transmission. Shortly, basic principles of the wavelength division multiplexing systems are presented utilizing especially the Coarse WDM technique. Consequently, a simulation model for the appropriate CWDM optical transmission path is introduced with short descriptions of functional blocks representing technologies utilized in this specific environment. The created Simulink modeling scheme of real environmental conditions at the signal transmission using the Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) allows executing different requested analyses for advanced optical signal processing techniques. Finally, some results from the CWDM simulation are introduced for the signal transmission influenced by different negative effects in the optical transmission medium. Using the presented simulation model, it is possible analyzing transmitted optical signals with eye diagrams and determined the impact of negative influences on the optical frequency spectrum.

Title of the Paper: Latency Optimized Asynchronous Early Output Ripple Carry Adder based on Delay-Insensitive Dual-Rail Data Encoding


Authors: P. Balasubramanian, K. Prasad

Pages: 65-74

Abstract: Asynchronous circuits employing delay-insensitive codes for data representation i.e. encoding and following a 4-phase return-to-zero protocol for handshaking are generally robust. Depending upon whether a single delay-insensitive code or multiple delay-insensitive code(s) are used for data encoding, the encoding scheme is called homogeneous or heterogeneous delay-insensitive data encoding. This article proposes a new latency optimized early output asynchronous ripple carry adder (RCA) that utilizes single-bit asynchronous full adders (SAFAs) and dual-bit asynchronous full adders (DAFAs) which incorporate redundant logic and are based on the delay-insensitive dual-rail code i.e. homogeneous data encoding, and follow a 4-phase return-to-zero handshaking. Amongst various RCA, carry lookahead adder (CLA), and carry select adder (CSLA) designs, which are based on homogeneous or heterogeneous delayinsensitive data encodings which correspond to the weak-indication or the early output timing model, the proposed early output asynchronous RCA that incorporates SAFAs and DAFAs with redundant logic is found to result in reduced latency for a dualoperand addition operation. In particular, for a 32-bit asynchronous RCA, utilizing 15 stages of DAFAs and 2 stages of SAFAs leads to reduced latency. The theoretical worst-case latencies of the different asynchronous adders were calculated by taking into account the typical gate delays of a 32/28nm CMOS digital cell library, and a comparison is made with their practical worst-case latencies estimated. The theoretical and practical worst-case latencies show a close correlation. The proposed early output 32-bit asynchronous RCA, which contains 2 stages of SAFAs in the least significant positions and 15 stages of DAFAs in the more significant positions, reports the following optimizations in latency over its architectural counterparts for a similar adder size: i) 35.3% reduction in latency over a weakindication section-carry based CLA (SCBCLA), ii) 30.5% reduction in latency over a weak-indication hybrid SCBCLA-RCA, iii) 20.2% reduction in latency over an early output recursive CLA (RCLA), iv) 18.7% reduction in latency over an early output hybrid RCLA-RCA, and v) a 13% reduction in latency over an early output CSLA that features an optimum 8-8-8-8 uniform input partition.

Title of the Paper: Design and Implementation of the DAB/DMB Transmitter Identification Information Decoder


Authors: Hongsheng Zhang, Hongyun Wang, Guoyu Wang, Mingying Lu

Pages: 59-64

Abstract: The Transmitter Identification Information (TII) provides unambiguous identification of each transmitter in a Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) and Digital Multimedia Broadcast (DMB) network. Recent researches showed that some useful services, such as location and automatic emergency alert, can be efficiently implemented with the assistance of TII. However many DAB/DMB receivers do not have the TII decoding functionality because the implementation of TII is optional in the standard. This has blocked the application of the new services. In this paper, the TII coding theory is analyzed and the design method of the TII decoder is reported. The proposed method can be either implemented in software, enabling the software-based DAB/DMB receivers to add TII decoding ability simply though firmware updating, or embedded in the hardware of a DAB/DMB baseband chip at a very low cost of only 286 logic elements and 1280 memory bits.

Title of the Paper: Forest Target Classification Research Based on Multi-Class Gauss Kernel Fuzzy Support Vector Machine


Authors: Zhihui Dai, Qingqing Huang, Wenbin Li, Chaoyi Zhang

Pages: 52-58

Abstract: For the measurement system of artificial forest environment, it was necessary to import pattern recognition method to identify and classify the different targets such as living trees and obstacles in forest environment. The features selection directly affected the classifier performance. This paper content based on independent objects’ fusion point cloud data, extracted the target feature with clear distinction function, proposed a forest target classification method which based on multi-class Gauss particle size fuzzy support vector machine, the main contents were as follows: the forest environment independent objects semantic classification was unknown, the image data after segmentation and 3D laser point cloud data extraction, were used to extract the artificial forest target and obstacles color, shape, reflection strength and characteristics of three-dimension space. The import of Gauss particle size enhanced the fuzzy support vector machine which based on linear support vector machine classifier, and put forward the rise of membership function distribution based on semi convex, the decision directed acyclic graph was extended to multi-class classification. Through a large number of samples in training and learning under plantation environment, it proved that this method can effectively identify the plantation environment under the trees, fire, pedestrian these three target. Through the model parameter optimization, comprehensive average correct recognition rate can reach 96%, this result can provide accurate recognition for forest firefighter.

Title of the Paper: Techniques to Improve the Denoising for Wind Profiler Time Series Data


Authors: P. Krishna Murthy, S. Narayana Reddy

Pages: 44-51

Abstract: The lower atmospheric signals, which are processed in the present work has been obtained from the LAWP radar at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki, India. The Radar wind profiler is most suitable remote sensing tool for measuring the height profile of wind vector with high resolutions in both time and space in all weather conditions. The term wind profiling radar is often used to emphasize the operational applications of the clear air radar technique and operating at lower and middle UHF bands. These radars can measure the wind profiles in the first few kilometers of the atmosphere. They include boundary layer convergence processes and their relationship to atmospheric convection, mountain drainage flows and urban pollution studies. This paper discusses denoising the wind profiler data using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Peak Detection Technique (PDT) and Daubechies wavelets. Effective Doppler shift for LAWP data is obtained by using Db11 wavelet and compared with the different signal processing techniques. The Result shows that there is an effective doppler shift after using Db11 wavelet for LAWP signals.

Title of the Paper: Optimization of Wireless Networks Performance: an Approach Based on a Partial Penalty Method


Authors: I. V. Konnov, O. A. Kashina, E. Laitinen

Pages: 37-43

Abstract: We study an optimization problem for a wireless telecommunication network stated as a generalized transportation problem (TP), where (the number of “sellers” ) is the number of network providers, and (the number of “buyers”) is the number of connections established at a given time moment. Since in practice initial data of such problems are, generally speaking, inexact and/or vary rather quickly, it is more important to obtain an approximate solution of the problem (with a prescribed accuracy) within a reasonable time interval rather than to solve it precisely (but in a longer time). We propose to solve this problem by a technique that explores the idea of penalty functions, namely, the so-called Partial Penalty Method (PPM, for short). As distinct from exact solution methods for TP (e.g., the method of potentials), our approach allows us to further extend the class of considered problems by including to it TP with nonlinear objective functions. As an example, we consider a TP, where the objective function (expenses connected with resource allocation) is such that the price of the unit amount of the resource is not constant but depends on the total purchase size. In addition, we study the limit behavior of solutions to TP whose data are subject to fading disturbances. Since in our approach the initial point is not necessarily admissible, we use an approximate solution of each problem as the initial point for the next one. As expected, under certain requirements to disturbances the sequence of solutions to “disturbed” problems tends to a solution of the limit problem. We prove experimentally that PPM is more efficient than the usual variant of the Penalty Function Method (the Full Penalty Method, or FPM). The preference of PPM over FPM is more evident for n much greater than m.

Title of the Paper: An Innovative Nature-Inspired Heuristic Combined with Response Surface Methodology to find the Optimal Region in Discrete Event Simulation Models


Authors: Cassettari Lucia, Mosca Marco, Mosca Roberto, Giribone Pier Giuseppe

Pages: 27-36

Abstract: The search for a stationary point in the study of Discrete Event Simulation models is a complex problem. This is because the equation of the objective function is never known a priori to the experimenter. In the case of restricted investigation domains the Response Surface Methodology typically provides, through the use of Central Composite Design, the experimental design most suitable for the construction of first and second order regression meta-models. The problem becomes more complex when the domain to be investigated is larger because, in that case, it becomes impossible to identify a meta-model regression able to describe the behaviour of the objective function on the entire domain. Such a limitation can be overcome by an appropriate use of research techniques such as gradiental or direct search methods. However, the presence in the domain of local stationary points may affect their effectiveness and forces the experimenter to track the investigation starting from several points of the domain, with a consequent increase in the number of function evaluations and computational time. In more recent times global research techniques have been developed, often inspired by natural processes. However they generally not perform well applied to Discrete Event Simulation models. For this reason the Authors have developed a new search algorithm called Attraction Force Optimization (AFO). The proposed approach applied to industrial problems up to 10-dimensional, offers significant advantages in terms of both exploration capacity and convergence speed. An application of the proposed technique to a real industrial case completes the discussion.

Title of the Paper: Improved Whale Optimization Algorithms Based on Inertia Weights and theirs Applications


Authors: Hongping Hu, Yanping Bai, Ting Xu

Pages: 12-26

Abstract: Whale optimization algorithm (WOA), which mimics the social behavior of humpback whales, was proposed by Seyedali Mirjalili and Andrew Lewis in 2016.This paper introduces the inertia weights to WOA to obtain the improved whale optimization algorithms(IWOAs). IWOAs are tested with 27 mathematical benchmark functions and are applied to predict daily air quality index(AQI) of Taiyuan.The results show that IWOAs with inertia weights are superior to WOA,FOA,ABC,and PSO on the minimum of benchmark functions and are very competitive for prediction compared with WOA and PSO.

Title of the Paper: Extended Critical Directions for Time-Control Constrained Problems


Authors: Karla L. Cortez del Rio, Javier F. Rosenblueth

Pages: 1-11

Abstract: We derive in this paper second order necessary conditions for certain classes of optimal control problems involving inequality and equality constraints in the time variable and the control functions. We study different normality conditions found in the literature which can be imposed on solutions to the problem and provide a new approach, partly based on the theory for constrained problems in finite dimensional spaces, which under mild assumptions allows us to enlarge the usual set of critical directions.