International Journal of Energy

ISSN: 1998-4316
Volume 12, 2018

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 12, 2018

Title of the Paper: Emerging Applications of Carbon Nanotube Wires in Electromagnetic Machines


Authors: Sumeet Chaudhary, Shweta Avinash Nair, Francois Tchondou Nyamsi, Mark Schulz, Massoud Maxwell Rabiee, Marc Cahay

Pages: 26-31

Abstract: Currently, there is a strong need for improving the efficiency of electromagnetic machines as they have become an increasing part of our daily lives. The field of electric machines has seen steady growth in the last decade. However, no recent significant breakthrough has been made in the design of electric machines. To bring about a noteworthy change in this field, it is likely that new materials must be used. The recent advances made in the synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT) materials have opened new doors of opportunity for the macroscopic application of CNT fibers. It has been found that CNT based wires have advantages over copper wires in terms of stability at extreme conditions, such as working at high temperatures, and the ability to withstand harsh chemical treatments. It has been shown that CNTs, owing to their “one dimensional” and symmetrical structure, can move charge carriers along the tube without scattering. If this behavior could be scaled-up to macroscale wires, carbon nanotube wire would replace the currently used copper wires. Due to the absence of scattering, the resistivity of individual CNTs have been found to be in the order of 〖10〗^(-8) Ωm. However, in macroscale carbon nanotube wire, the resistivity is about 100 times greater than the resistivity of individual nanotubes. The positive aspect is the density of carbon wire is about 1/5 the density of metal wire. In this paper, an extensive study is described on the state-of-the-art advances made in the synthesis of CNT based continuous fibers and the possibility of using CNT wires as an alternative to the traditionally used copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) conductors in electromagnetic devices. As shown from the results of the CNT based electromagnetic machines investigated, a significant amount of research is still required to improve the performance of CNT macrostructures such as yarns and sheets in hope of replacing metal conductors.

Title of the Paper: Study Regarding the Development of an Efficient Energy Management Programme for the Processing Industry


Authors: Badea Lepadatescu

Pages: 20-25

Abstract: The first part of the paper discusses the necessity of developing an energy saving programme, and presents the main energy consumers of industry and the significant weight held by energy related costs in the turnover of production systems in processing industry. Further the paper describes and analyses the steps to be followed in developing an efficient energy management programme. Some of these steps are: appointment by the administration board of a manager for energy related issues, an energy audit, including a complete inventory of the energy consuming equipment, the diagram of the process flow, a general view on the operation practice, answers to a list of specific questions, identification of opportunities and their economic assessment, prioritising and grouping them into the fields of: lighting, drives, cooling, ventilation, heating, approval of the energy management programme by the administration board, implementation of the approved programme, starting with the engineering design part required by each established measure. The second part of the paper shows a way to produce energy using a wind turbine with vertical axis helical rotor shape with good energetic performances even at low wind speed. In a renewable energy system, the energy is generated according to the weather rather than on demand. In the absence of storage, a great deal of this energy will be dumped. On of the problem with renewable energy is the high capital cost. The energy is diffuse and demands large structures to collect and convert it. The equipment is expensive and comes with a large amount of infrastructure. There is an energy cost associated with manufacturing renewable energy output. Other problem with renewable energy is its intermittency. Unlike fossil fuel, the source cannot be controlled to match demand. The energy is not available all the time, and may not even be easy to predict. To match supply to demand, it may be necessary to store energy, or to reschedule our use of energy, or to use a mixture of different energy sources. Also, is presented a Monte-Carlo simulation of wind turbine parameters for cumulative frequency distribution for wind speed and for relative frequency histogram for annual energy output.

Title of the Paper: Low Voltage Low Power FGMOS Based Voltage Differencing Transconductance Amplifier and its Applications


Authors: Charu Rana, Dinesh Prasad, Neelofar Afzal

Pages: 12-19

Abstract: This paper presents a low voltage low power configuration of voltage differencing transconductance amplifier based on floating gate MOSFET. The proposed VDTA variant operates at supply voltage ±0.7 V with total static power dissipation of 90 μW due to low

Title of the Paper: Malik Muhammad Zaid, Muhammad Usama Malik, Muhammad Sibtain Bhatti, Hamid Razzaq, Muhammad Umair Aslam


Authors: Malik Muhammad Zaid, Muhammad Usama Malik, Muhammad Sibtain Bhatti, Hamid Razzaq, Muhammad Umair Aslam

Pages: 6-11

Abstract: In this project, PQ analyzer is developed. This paper depicts the detection and classification of sag, swell, interruption, undervoltage and overvoltage by uninterruptedly monitoring of single phase power system. All the perceptions and classifications are accomplished by using Advanced Digital Signal Processor (ADSP-21369). In this project, the prototype is configured with the LabVIEW to receive and store all the data which is sent by the processor via UART interface (RS-232 protocol).

Title of the Paper: Experience to Electrical Engineering Students the Principles of Smart Grid Platform


Authors: Hen Friman

Pages: 1-5

Abstract: World Energy Consumption relies heavily on coal, oil, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, that is, they rely on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensive or too environmentally damaging to retrieve. In contrast, renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar energy, are constantly replenished and will never run out. Due to the rising need for professionals and academics with a background and understanding in the Smart Grid and Renewable Energy fields, Holon Institute of Technology ("HIT") developed a new program at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. The Renewable Energy program gives the students technical and practical aspects of energy use (technology and methodology of the study) and energy efficiency. The program also deals with minimizing the environmental impacts of energy use, as well as with energy economy and environmental policy. HIT offers its students a well-equipped laboratory, containing state of the art equipment in various fields such as: photovoltaic energy systems, a smart grid telecommunications and information security platform, wind and water energy work stations, and power electronics equipment. This article presents the latest teaching and conclusions obtained in experiments conducted on the system platform.