International Journal of Communications


ISSN: 1998-4480
Volume 13, 2019

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 13, 2019


Title of the Paper: An Incremental Refinement Approach to a Development of the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service Protocol

 

Authors: Sanae El Mimouni, Rajaa Filali, Anas Amamou, Bahija Boulamaat and Mohamed Bouhdadi

Pages: 43-48

Abstract: This paper presents an incremental formal modeling of the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) using event B method. The RADIUS protocol is a distributed client/server protocol that protects networks against unauthorized access. We model the protocol step by step by using refinement, a technique of event B. The first step will be the modeling of the most abstract specification of the protocol. Then by the second refinement more details of the protocol specification will be added to the model. By this approach, the model will be a more explicit representation of the target protocol by each refinement. Through a refinement approach, we prove that the abstract goals concerning message exchange of the RADIUS protocol are satisfied. In the developed Event-B models of the RADIUS protocol described in this paper, all proofs are generated and discharged by the Rodin tool. Our Specification is very general and contains basic message exchange process of RADIUS Client/server.


Title of the Paper: Flexible Wearable Antenna for Body Centric Wireless Communication in ISM Band

 

Authors: Afyf Amal, Bellarbi Larbi, Sennouni M. Adel, Yaakoubi Nourdin, Errachid Abdelhamid

Pages: 39-42

Abstract: Passive Microwave Imaging (PMI) has been widely studied for breast cancer detection in recent times. Sensing dielectric property differences of tissues over a wide frequency band has been made possible by ultra-wideband (UWB) techniques. In this paper, a flexible, compact monopole antenna on a Kapton polyimide is designed and fabricated, using a Computer Simulation Technology simulator (CST) and MEMS technology, to be in contact with biological breast tissues over the S-Band (2-4 GHz). The antenna parameters are optimized to obtain a good impedance match over the required frequency range. Operation of the antenna close to the human body necessitates adjusting its design for the intended applications whereas the maximum SAR value estimated in such conditions has to respect the standards. In this context, simulation tools that can take into account specific biological models offer a range of possibilities for investigating and optimizing the performance of Body-Centric Wireless Networks (BCWNs) devices.


Title of the Paper: Circularly Polarized S-Band Square Patch Antenna With a Single Cut for S-band Small Satellites Applications

 

Authors: M.Α.Μebrek, M.Βacha, L.Νouar, L.Ηadj-Αbderrahmane

Pages: 33-38

Abstract: In this paper, the main purpose is to design an S-band patch antenna which is basically directional and circularly polarized for S-band small satellites applications. This antenna has a square shape ground and on the upper portion there is a patch which is also square but with a single truncated corner in order to get circular polarization, the connection between the patch and the ground has been established using a coaxial probe. The designed antenna can be easily integrated with a small satellite body due to the simplicity of the design. Commercially available finite element method solver based High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) have been used in this analysis. The proposed antenna achieved desirable results with an axial ration of 0.17dB at center frequency of 2.2 GHz and less than 3dB for a frequency band of 31 MHz and beam width of more than 110°. The gain achieved by this antenna is around 7dBi at center frequency. The directional radiation pattern, circular polarization (CP), and high gain characteristics make the proposed antenna suitable for small satellite applications.


Title of the Paper: Concerning the Emitted Electromagnetic Radiation by the Electronic Devices

 

Authors: Mircea - E. Ardeleanu, Maria Brojboiu, Paul Nicoleanu

Pages: 27-32

Abstract: The rapid development of IT technologies has led to the achievement of new modern, performant equipment which should meet the actual requirements concerning the electromagnetic pollution. Inside the office buildings, houses, schools it is used more often the wireless access to the internet of the accounting technique (computer networks, laptops, tablets, etc.) by using routers. This article presents a synthesis of the experimental measurements carried out to determine the electromagnetic field emissions of electronic equipment (mobile phones, laptops, routers) specific to domestic and industrial applications. The experimental determinations were performed in the laboratory of Electromagnetic Compatibility within the National Institute for Research Development and Testing in Electrical Engineering of Craiova (ICMET). The experimental results had the purpose to verify if the electromagnetic field emissions values are within the range of the accepted limits regulated by the rules in force regarding the electromagnetic compatibility.


Title of the Paper: Physical Layer Security of Generalized Selection Combining based Cognitive Radio Networks

 

Authors: Ajay Singh

Pages: 21-26

Abstract: Security has become an important concern in the field of wireless communication, which is vulnerable to ruinous attacks due to open nature of wireless medium. For executing reliable transmission, physical layer security has been raised as an interesting approach with minimum complexity. Here we have considered a system having a secondary transmitter (Alice) and secondary receiver (Bob) and eavesdropper (Eve). In this model, we are assuming that the Eve wants to know about the communication between Alice and Bob in Rayleigh fading environment. This paper presents a new structure for scrutinizing intercept probability (IP). The aim is to measure the physical layer security of generalized selection combining based cognitive radio networks under Rayleigh fading using IP in the presence of primary user. We have derived new closed form expressions for IP and examined the effect of number of antennas on the secrecy of system.


Title of the Paper: Circularly Polarized S-Band Square Patch Antenna with a Single Cut for S-band Small Satellites Applications

 

Authors: M. A. Mebrek, M. Bacha, L. Nouar, L. Hadj-Abderrahmane

Pages: 15-20

Abstract: In this paper, the main purpose is to design an S-band patch antenna which is basically directional and circularly polarized for S-band small satellites applications. This antenna has a square shape ground and on the upper portion there is a patch which is also square but with a single truncated corner in order to get circular polarization, the connection between the patch and the ground has been established using a coaxial probe. The designed antenna can be easily integrated with a small satellite body due to the simplicity of the design. Commercially available finite element method solver based High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS) have been used in this analysis. The proposed antenna achieved desirable results with an axial ration of 0.17dB at center frequency of 2.2 GHz and less than 3dB for a frequency band of 31 MHz and beam width of more than 110°. The gain achieved by this antenna is around 7dBi at center frequency. The directional radiation pattern, circular polarization (CP), and high gain characteristics make the proposed antenna suitable for small satellite applications.


Title of the Paper: Analysis of the Level Crossing Rate of Wireless Communication System in the Presence of Nakagami-m Fading and Double Nakagami-m Co-channel Interference

 

Authors: Dragana Krstić, Dušan Stefanović, Ivan Vulić, Mihajlo Stefanović

Pages: 10-14

Abstract: In this article, the ratio of Nakagami-m random process (RP) and product of two Nakagami-m random processes is observed. This ratio presents signal-to-interference envelope ratio. Here is actually represented an interference limited Nakagami-m fading environment with Nakagami*Nakagami co-channel interference. Formula for the level crossing rate (LCR) of defined ratio is performed and graphically presented. The influence of the channel parameters on the LCR is discussed based on these graphs. The calculation of the performance of wireless systems is performed in order to achieve better reliability of wireless links used for command and information systems and for military purposes.


Title of the Paper: Load-balancing Techniques in Ad-hoc Networks

 

Authors: Amina Guidoum, Aoued. Boukelif, Solatna Achour, Madani Mohamed

Pages: 1-9

Abstract: A critical challenge in ad hoc network design is the development of efficient routing protocols that can provide high quality communication between mobile nodes. Many routing protocols have been developed for ad hoc mobile networks. These protocols can generally be categorized as table-driven and on-demand routing. Indeed, ad hoc network routing protocols tend to use a few "centralized" nodes on a large number of routes. This causes congestion in media access control (MAC), which results in high packet delays. In addition, such nodes would also suffer from high power consumption of their batteries. This is an undesirable effect, which is aggravated by the power limit of mobile node batteries. In fact, a major disadvantage of all existing ad hoc routing protocols is that they have no provisions for transmitting the load of a path during route configuration. As a result, they cannot balance the load on different paths. It is essential to use efficient routing protocols that provide high quality communication. It is therefore necessary to distribute the traffic between the mobile hosts. A Routing Protocol in ad-hoc networks should distribute routing tasks equitably. This article describes the different load metrics and summarizes the main existing load-balanced routing protocols. Finally, a qualitative comparison of the different load metrics and load-balanced routing protocols is presented.