International Journal of Energy and Environment

ISSN: 2308-1007
Volume 6, 2012

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Issue 1, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Apeture Variation and Pressure Change Due to Thermal Stress and Silica Precipitation/Dissolution Accompanied by Colloidal Transport in a Coupled Fracture-Skin-Matrix System

Authors: N. Natarajan1, G. Suresh Kumar

Pages: 1-15

Abstract: A numerical model is developed for studying the fluid pressure and permeability changes in a coupled fracture matrix system in the presence of fracture-skin with colloidal transport in a fractured geothermal reservoir, by taking into account the effects of thermal stresses and silica precipitation/dissolution, which is computed using linear reaction kinetics. Thus, this work is essentially an extension of the earlier work by Ghassemi and Suresh Kumar (2007). In addition, in the present model, the contaminant transport is facilitated by the presence of colloids. Mass exchange between the horizontal fracture and the fracture-skin is accounted for by assuming diffusion limited transport for both colloids as well as contaminants. Heat transfer between the fracture and fracture-skin is modeled considering only conduction, while heat transport within the fracture includes thermal advection, dispersion and conduction. Due to colloid facilitated chemical transport under non isothermal conditions, in a coupled fracture-skin-matrix system, the fracture apertures vary spatially, with a corresponding pressure variation for a constant discharge. A series of numerical experiments were conducted for analyzing the spatial variation of fracture aperture in response to the individual and combined effects of thermal stress and silica precipitation/dissolution in the presence of the fracture-skin and colloids facilitated contaminant transport. Results suggest that the presence of fracture skin and colloids has a significant impact in deciding the evolution of fracture permeability.

Title of the Paper: The Romanian Tourism in the Context of the Statistical Analysis

Authors: Mirela Mazilu, Dumitru B?l?, Roxana Cristina Severineanu

Pages: 16-23

Abstract: The growing relevance of tourism industry for modern advanced economies has increased the interest among researchers and policy makers in the statistical analysis of destination competitiveness. International tourism has increased exponentially since 1950. With this growth the industry has become significantly more competitive, and the marketing role of National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) has taken on added significance. Tourism is a comprehensive industry, involving food, housing, transportation, travel, shopping, entertainment, etc. It promotes the harmonious development of urban economy by boosting related industries and creating jobs. Now tourism has already got a high industrial status in the urban economic development, and its effect on the economy has become more and more apparent. However, tourism statistical system, statistical methods and statistical data have been imperfect for a long time. Coupled with some other reasons, the importance of tourism in promoting the harmonious development of urban economy lacks comprehensive, scientific and objective statistical analysis. Based on tourism economics, statistics, and latest research results concerning the harmonious development of urban tourism economy, and not only, both at home and abroad.

Title of the Paper: The Tourism and the Social, Cultural and Economic Development

Authors: Mirela Mazilu, M?d?lina Andrei, Daniela Dumitrescu

Pages: 24-30

Abstract: Tourism is a strategic economic activity in the European Union, its importance in the EU economy being likely to grow in the next few years. The European tourism industry generates over 4% from the GDP of the European Union, with almost 2 million companies which employ almost 4% of the total work force (approx. 8 million work places). If the connected sectors are taking into consideration, the estimated contribution of tourism to the creation of the GDP is a lot larger - tourism indirectly generates approx. 11% of the GDP of the European Union and gathers almost 12% of the work force. The following unfolding principles have been established through the research program of the Plan for the National Tourism Development: efficient and directed communication - each tourist issuer country needs an adapted marketing plan, because they differently answer to the different types of marketing activities; attracting the persons from the travels sector - the most direct and sustainable means of information and influence of the travels sectors are the seminars/workshops, organized as a destination for the personnel from the travels sector (e.g. performed in major centers under the form of itinerary activities), and the accommodation travels; the information of the consumers' sector - on all the markets, the consumers find out about destinations through common means, like: orally from friends/colleagues, who have visited the destination, from the articles written in the media, from TV travel shows and special films, from the advertisements published in the magazines, and from the promotional materials of the tour-operators and of the destination-countries; the attraction of the special interest market segments - the more specialized segments of the spa tourism market, of the adventure tourism and of eco-tourism being the most relevant ones for Romania; they can be efficiently approached through web pages especially dedicated to them and through brochures, presenting the key aspects and the facilities.

Title of the Paper: On the Dry Deposition of Ionic Species at Two National Parks Located in the Vicinity of Power Plants in Mexico

Authors: Julia Cerón, Rosa María Cerón, Beatríz Cárdenas, Abraham Ortinez, Enrique Cruz, Berenice Díaz, Guadalupe Carballo, Tezozomoc Pérez, Javier Reyes, Manuel Muriel, Jesús Guerra

Pages: 31-38

Abstract: Dry deposition levels of Na+, K+, Ca2+ , Mg2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-, are reported for two sites in Mexico: Biospherereserve “Los Petenes” in Campeche, and “El Chico” National Parkin Hidalgo; during 2009 and 2010. Dry deposition samples weretaken using nylon filters as surrogate surfaces for one-week longexposure periods. For both sampling sites, nitrate levels exceeded thebackground hemispheric value reported for remote sites. In the caseof Los Petenes, NO3- showed good correlation with SO42-, suggestingthat both ions had a common source, probably combustion processes.From backward trajectories analysis, the origin of the air masses forLos Petenes during the study period was traced, identifying localsources (Lerma power plant and biomass burning) as the mainsources contributing to the acidity. On the other hand, In El Chico, NO3- - SO42- correlation coefficient was negligible, suggesting thatthis ion pair had an origin in different sources. We conclude that thehigh nitrate levels found in El Chico had their origin in forest firesoccurring frequently as a part of the natural dynamic of this park.Since only local sources contributed to the N deposition in this site,we conclude that power plant located at Tula, an urban andindustrialized site near to El Chico, did not contributed to traceelements dry deposition in El Chico. In spite of nitrate and sulfatelevels were elevated, pH values obtained showed that these sites hadenough buffer capacity to neutralize the acidity. However, it isnecessary to make an accurate diagnosis of both sites, consideringthat pH value is not a conservative tracer of the potentially ecologicaleffects related to acid deposition. Therefore, we propose that in futureworks, critical loads for N and S must been estimated in both sites.

Title of the Paper: Current Trends in Corporate Performance Evaluation and Reporting in the Czech Republic

Authors: Ji?í H?ebí?ek, Michael Štencl, Old?ich Trenz, Jana Soukopová

Pages: 39-48

Abstract: Current trends of corporate performance evaluation, i.e. the measurement of environmental, social, economic and governance performance of company and corporate sustainable reporting are discussed in the paper. The relationship between corporate performance and reporting is important and the development of modern and advanced methods to identify these indicators is discussed together with the possibility of the utilization of information and communication technology and XBRL taxonomy. The current situation in corporate reporting in the Czech Republic is introduced also.

Title of the Paper: The Variation of Gas Emissions in an Otto Engine by Using Different Gases as Fuel

Authors: Charalampos Arapatsakos, Anastasios Karkanis, Marianthi Moschou, Ioannis Pantokratoras

Pages: 49-56

Abstract: Biofuels are fuels made from recently living organisms. They can be divided into three categories: 1) First-generation biofuels which are made largely from edible sugars and starches. 2) Second-generation biofuels, which are made from nonedible plant materials and 3) Third-generation biofuels, which are made from algae and other microbes. Biofuels are renewable, meaning their sources can be regrown. Advanced biofuels can offer environmental benefits such as lower carbon emissions and lower sulfur compared with conventional petroleum based fuels. The present paper examines the use of fuel gases (propane, 80%butane-20%propane, natural gas) in a small four-stroke engine of internal combustion, which it is used for the movement of a small alternative generator. The electrical generator functioned without load and under different loads (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 W), using as fuels gasoline and fuel gases. During the tests, it has been observed the CO and HC emissions for every fuel and load condition. The use of natural gas as fuel has as a result the CO and HC emissions decrease under different load. The flow of fuel gases was regulated so that until the load of 2000W the behavior of the engine from the aspect of efficiency to be the same with that of gasoline. This means that the engine rpm was the same for every electrical load in both fuels gasoline and fuel gases. During the tests, the consumption of gasoline and fuel gases was recorded and it has been noticed that they were increased when the electrical load was increased too. As far as the consumption of fuel gases is concerned, it has been noticed that it gives the same engine behavior from the aspect of power and engine rpm that the manufacturer gives for the use of gasoline.

Title of the Paper: Research on Quality of Pellets

Authors: Crisan E., Ardelean M., Vilceanu L., Heput T.

Pages: 57-65

Abstract: Besides the humidity, the granulometriccomposition and the specific surface of the pelleted material, thecompressive strength of the pellets is also influenced by someadditions with binding proprieties (bentonite, lime, limestone,dolomite, etc.). During the hardening process, these additions forma resistant slag that contributes to the binding of the granules offerrous raw materials and, finally, to the increasing of thecompressive strength of the pellets. The paper presents the resultsof the laboratory experiments on the production of pellets by usingsecondary materials (steel plant dust, sludge from sintering andblast furnace plants, red mud, etc.) as raw materials, andlime/dolomite as a binder along with the bentonite.

Title of the Paper: Research on Steel Refining

Authors: Adriana Pu?an, Hepu? Teodor, Vîlceanu Lucia, Vasile Pu?an

Pages: 66-73

Abstract: The paper presents the results of laboratory experiments on steel desulphurization and deoxidation with slag from the system CaO-SiO2-TiO2. To determine the influence, on the desulphurisation and deoxidation process, of the titanium oxide added in calcium aluminate slag, we experimented, in the laboratory phase, the steel treatment with a mechanical mixture consisting of lime, aluminous slag and slag obtained from the titanium making process through the aluminothermic technology. The data obtained in the experiments were processed in Excel and MATLAB programs, resulting simple or multiple correlation equations, which allowed the elucidation of some physical-chemical phenomena specific to the desulphurisation processes.

Title of the Paper: Variations of Fine and Coarse Urban Atmospheric Aerosol Concentrations in Riga City, Latvia

Authors: A. Osite, A. Viksna, J. Kleperis, I. Steinberga

Pages: 74-82

Abstract: Atmospheric fine and coarse particulate matter were measured in Riga City during two sampling campaigns. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration levels of urban aerosols in Riga centre on typical canyon streets and at the monitoring station which is classified as urban-industrial, and it is located closely to Riga Freeport territory. The first sampling campaign was arranged at the urban-industrial monitoring station. The concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) were measured from the end of April until the end of December 2007. During the second sampling campaign the concentrations of particulate matter of different fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were measured during the time period from October 2009 until December 2010 in the city centre on two canyon streets. Concentrations and seasonal variations of urban aerosols were evaluated analyzing correlations with meteorological parameters and other pollutant gases. At the Riga Freeport territory the maximum daily concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 reached 52.5 μg m-3 in June and 83.4 μg m-3 in December, respectively. On the densely congested traffic streets – Brivibas and Kr. Valdemara Street PM10 concentrations exceeded both thresholds: an average daily concentration higher 50 μg m-3 more than 35 times per year, and the annual average concentration - 40 μg m-3.

Title of the Paper: Research on the Recovery of Waste in Plastic Deformation Processes

Authors: M. L. Strugariu, T. Hepu?

Pages: 83-91

Abstract: The conversion of iron or steel into sheet, wire or rods requires hot and cold mechanical transformation stages frequently employing water as a lubricant and coolant. Contaminants include hydraulic oils, tallow and particulate solids. Many steel industry wastewaters are contaminated by hydraulic oil also known as soluble oil.This paper presents experimentation (as a laboratory phase) on the possibility of recovery oily Mill Scale by sintering. Based on the experimental results in laboratory phase, a processing technology is proposed for this waste in order to obtain briquetting. Recovery of oily mill scale has both environmental and economical effects by reducing the amounts deposited. Briquetting process has the advantage that it allows a wide range of wastes containing iron both in terms of chemical composition (primarily iron content) and granulometric composition. For industrial areas, especially in the profile steel, recovery of waste by briquetting considered the most viable technological solution.

Title of the Paper: Analysis of Heating Energy of Ventilation and Underground Heat Exchanger in North European Passive Houses

Authors: Hendrik Voll, Erkki Seinre, Mati Sööt

Pages: 92-100

Abstract: The paper is taking under consideration the two non-residental passive house buildings built in North Europe in Estonia. The first building is a community center of village Palamuse and the second monitored building is a kindergarten „Kaseke“ in Valga city. Both buildings were planned and designed according to the Austrian passivehouse standard requirements. In current paper energy consumptions of building services systems and thermal indoor climate parameters were measurements. According to these, the building services systems did not work properly and problems occured. Both buildings consumed considerably more energy in reality than indicated in energy simulations accomplished before the actual construction. Also it was discovered that the relative humidity levels in both buildings were considerably lower than recommended in Estonian standards. Besides the risk of condensation for the supply air in underground supply pipes in Nordic conditions was analysed. The analysis showed that there is a considerable risk of condensation in the pipes and the system should we avoided in Nordic conditions.

Title of the Paper: Design Criteria for Staged Authentic Tourist Settings: Traditional Turkish House Interiors

Authors: Nur Ayalp, Ay?e Muge Bozdayi

Pages: 101-108

Abstract: Tourism is one of the main sector effects the sustainability of a cultural setting. In cultural touristic settings, the feeling of pleasure is conveyed through cultural attractions that involve cultural identity in accordance with cultural meanings. The majority of cultural heritage settings are reconstructed for touristic visits. The study aims to evaluate the reused cultural interiors of authentic settings. The study focuses on the multifaceted problems occur in reconstruction process. Thus, reconstructing a space influences both functional and the socio-cultural aspects of an interior. Cultural motivation of a tourist has many different dimensions; from object based authenticity to existential authenticity. In a cultural setting the interior itself becomes the object that is exhibited. This reconstruction process can be named as ‘staged authenticity’. This study focuses on the authenticity dimensions of an interior space. The study aims to set this interior design problem in a context and develop design criteria for staged authentic tourist settings.

Title of the Paper: Sustainable Design Proposals in Shopping Center Public Interiors

Authors: Gozen Guner Aktas

Pages: 109-116

Abstract: This study aims to develop some design proposals to provide the aspect of sustainability in the public interiors of shopping centers which are one of the most common structures of the era. Aspects that constitute the design criteria for the public spaces shopping centers from a sustainability point of view have been discussed. Effects of natural daylight and the interior finishing materials on the concept of sustainability in the public areas of shopping centers have been drawn.

Title of the Paper: Poznan Greenery Accompanying One-Family Houses

Authors: Marzena Banach

Pages: 117-124

Abstract: Greenery accompanying housing estates in Poznan, is ahardly used element of shaping the spatial order. The lack of greens,inappropriate composition, bad choice of the genres and the lowstandard of equipment in the green terrains surrounding the onefamilybuildings, lowers the quality of place of residence. A properlydesigned greenery may support: the humanization of neighbourlyspace, the increase of attractiveness of the space for its’ inhabitants,compensation of differences in the quality of living (neighbourhoodswith apartment houses and detached-houses), and so the quality oflife in Poznan housing neighbourhoods.

Title of the Paper: Environment Management Accounting in Romania Companies Operating in Rural Tourism

Authors: Paula Stoicea

Pages: 125-133

Abstract: Economic agents in rural tourism are more and more concerned about achieving and demonstrating an environmental performance, clearly by setting towards this sense environmental objectives and adopting policies so that they can decrease the impact that their own activities and services have on the environment. These aspects are written more and more stringent in the context of legislation, of sustainable development and of the measures meant to encourage the environmental protection. National environmental accounts have the same role as the traditional national accounts, facilitating diagnosis of the performance of past economic activities and the adoption of policies that would answer this diagnosis. National environmental accounts allow the evaluation of sustainable and non sustainable aspects of the economic performances of a nation considering the environmental impacts and their repercussions. These favor the use of economic indicators corrected with the environment in the policies analysis and substantiation, and the use of physical accounts in decision making.

Title of the Paper: Niche Tourism in Dambovita County - Opportunities and Perspectives

Authors: Daniela Dumitrescu, Adrian-Aurel Balt?lung?, Aurel Iancu

Pages: 134-143

Abstract: Niche tourism represents a major opportunity for thenational development of Romania and local development ofDambovita county. It is the “offensive” economical activity whichwill “irradiate” development, in a suburban area economicallyspeaking, of outmost importance for the touristic resources. ForDambovita County the proximity of the great poles of touristicattraction – Prahova Valley and Bran-Rucar Corridor, is a decisivereason to orientate towards specific offers of niche tourism,complementary to the existing ones. Although in general, the averageof stay is more reduced in the case of these subtypes of tourism dueto their specific nature, the returns are generally higher.The main question refers to the way of utilization, application andimplementation of different types and subtypes of specific tourism.For that purpose there are a series of programs and projects of hugeimportance, in different stages of development. The main problemsthat are raised concern the high material and environmental costs, aswell as the long completion time. Without underestimating the longterm importance and benefits of this type of projects, we thereforepresent, analyze and suggest a series of smaller dimension projects,some even very small but with visible effects to the localcommunities on a shorter time frame. We here refer to thecommunities from the rural areas, which own a large share from thecounty level, characterized through demographic and economicbrittleness and vulnerability, being the ones that have the moststringent need of such opportunities. By combining these twodirections, we can assure a local and regional, sustainabledevelopment.

Title of the Paper: The Role of Brands for the Valorification and Touristic Development of Sibiu County

Authors: Adrian Aurel Balt?lung?, Daniela Dumitrescu

Pages: 144-152

Abstract: Sibiu county benefits of numerous brands, some of them areolder (which practically identify with this area) and other arenewer. At first glance, this aspect can only be positive, but intime, we can observe some negative aspects as well, such aserosion of its attractiveness, due to a big pressure of the space,or the creation of an infrastructure of profile, which laterproves to be outsized. This can only lead to the next question:is it more effective and durable to develop brands for alltouristic resources of which we possess (with the risk of havingtoo many at a certain point in time) or first establish thebrand/brands and consequently develop the infrastructure? Presently Sibiu county undergoes a process of repositioning onthe touristic market, and especially on it the internationallyone. It has the potential of becoming a special destination forthe tourists who wish to experiment new destinations, learnabout the lifestyle and authentic local culture, live personalexperiences that will offer them profound satisfactions.

Issue 2, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Protected Areas from the Region of Suceava and Its Touristic Valorization

Authors: Constantin Cocerhan

Pages: 153-163

Abstract: The study, based on specialised documentation of fieldresearch, of comparative analysis highlights opportunities withinSuceava area and its surroundings regarding the touristic andscientific potential in the dendrological park Sipote and six naturalreservations of flora and forests. As a result we can distinguishspecies of plants, glacial relics, trees and forested areas which arevery valuable and attractive biologically, ecologically, educationallyand touristically. The endemic elements are very important from a scientific point ofview for the researchers because they make it posible to reconstitutethe evolution of flora and fauna. Together with the sheltered climateand the clean air, flora offers many opportunities to the polyvalenttourism through the charm and the vivid colours during flowering,providing a place of quietness and inner balance. The ecosystems within Suceava area have a valuable and attractivepotential which offers the opportunity to know, investigate andinform specialists from different areas such as ecotourism,educational tourism, agrotourism and rural tourism for othercategories of visitors.

Title of the Paper: The Role of the Public Administration in Relation to Pathological Phenomena Associated with Tourism in the Czech Republic

Authors: Stanislava Hoferková, Eva Šimková

Pages: 164-171

Abstract: The paper focuses the system of monitoring and prevention of socially pathological phenomena in connection with mass tourism. It is in line with the current trends of making safe environment for local inhabitants. The article deals with the role of public administration in regional development and highlights the inevitability of healthy partnerships in this safe tourism development. The work aims to map the relationship between an occurrence of socially pathological phenomena and mass tourism also in connection with safe environment. Partial aim is to characterize the level of cooperation in safety protection in selected regions of the Czech Republic. In an area of interest is such pathological behaviour that interferes with the natural environment of local citizens (residents) and negatively affects both the economic and social background of local residents together with living conditions of the target client group (visitors). A survey was conducted in the most visited tourist areas, in the Czech Republic, where there is a higher concentration of tourists which creates favourable conditions for pathological behaviour development. Based on the research findings steps will be proposed to eliminate the occurrence of the socially pathological behaviour.

Title of the Paper: Industrial Tourism as Activity Support for the Development of Ro?ia Montan? Area (Alba County, Romania)

Authors: I. Gavril?-Paven, A. C. Muntean

Pages: 172-179

Abstract: In this study the authors want to analyze the possibility of combining in Ro?ia Montan?’s area the classic forms of tourism activity with a new form that is being drawn lately, respectively the industrial tourism. Therefore, this way, the human potential with cultural value as well as the natural potential, unaffected by the mining exploitation, can be valorized through the classic forms of tourism, while the old mining exploitation as well as the areas affected by the unsustainable exploitation of the subsoil riches in the area, instead of being avoided can be rehabilitated and opened to the tourists by unifying the efforts of all responsible economic agents for this area. Also, from the article results that the industrial tourism can be successfully combine with the youth tourism due to the didactical purpose of this tourism form.

Title of the Paper: Culture Route on Hârtibaciu Valley, Sibiu County, Romania. Case Study: The Tourist Villages of Altâna and Hosman

Authors: Felicia Muresan

Pages: 180-189

Abstract: Sibiu County became a household name as a toptourist destination in Romania (as well as areas along theBlack Sea coast, Bucovina, Maramures, Prahova Valley orBran-Moeciu) both for the Romanian tourists, and especiallyfor foreigners (mainly within cultural tours, but not only).This status is conferred, inter alia, by the internationalrecognition of the cultural city of Sibiu, the main attractionpopularity among the tourists being: Sibiu, M?rginimeaSibiului, UNESCO sites (Biertan, Valea Viilor - TarnavelorArea). M?rginimea Sibiului, for instance, was awarded theGolden Apple in 2009, which is the equivalent of "The Oscar"Award in tourism. Hârtibaciu Valley is another area with great cultural touristpotential insufficiently promoted, the fortified churchesrepresenting a major tourist attraction of the villages here, but,unfortunately, it has significant gaps in tourisminfrastructure. Cultural tourism contributes to urbanregeneration, but it can also enrich the quality of life in ruralareas. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that culturaltourism can, thus, become an opportunity for the economicrevival of Hârtibaciu Valley. Therefore, Saxon tourist villages on the Valley ofHârtibaciu benefit from the publicity of the program offered bySibiu European Cultural Capital 2007, and their inclusion inthe European cultural routes, may be a chance for ruralregeneration. Although tourist villages or rural sites are not currentlyapproved by the Tourism Act of 2011, they are promoted byvarious national, local tourism associations or are included inprograms such as the Cultural Itinerary of the FortifiedChurches. The first Resource Center for the European Institute ofCultural Routes operates in Sibiu. It was founded in 2010 as anantenna of the European Institute of Cultural Routes (EICR)from Luxembourg. The mission of this Center focuses on theimplementation of the European Council’s Programme ofCultural Routes. In particular, the regional center of Sibiu isworking to develop cultural itineraries in Southeast Europeand South Caucasus, areas of priority for the European culturalcooperation. The first project of the Center, which will bededicated to the projects in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus,represents the Cultural Itinerary of the Fortified Churches ofTransylvania.

Title of the Paper: Controversies and Comments Regarding Some Fortifications and Construction Techniques with Burnt Materials from Southwestern Romania

Authors: Vlad Vintil? Zirra

Pages: 190-200

Abstract: In southwestern Romania (Dolj County) were investigated, over the years, through systematic digging three fortified settlements around which exists a controversy, especially in the last two decades. This controversy regards the way these fortification structures were conceived and then elevated. Long surveys pointed out the existent component in each defensive structure of some burnt construction materials (adobe bricks and clay soil that was used as filling / emplecton). Regarding the fortifications planning, specialized literature defines two different positions: 1. construction materials were first burnt, in special places designed for this, preliminary to the building in the defense belt; 2. construction materials were used to build forts, and then burnt in situ, because of a military conflict or (hard to say) a major cataclysm. Observation obtained on a de visu field research determined an overwhelming predominance of burnt bricks (even though at different temperatures, judging from the scale of red) and burnt emplecton clay soil. Thermal and composition analysis on the samples taken on different occasions (even though less than it should have been from two sites) give valuable clues to clarify the following debate, which until the documentation will be rigorously published could remain still open.

Title of the Paper: Aspects Concerning the Rural Tourism and its Role for the Local Development in the Mountainous Banat (West Development Region, Romania)

Authors: C?t?lina Ancu?a, Martin Olaru, Ana Ian??

Pages: 201-208

Abstract: The rural tourism was considered since early 90? as a very important factor for the development of almost all rural communities. In the Mountainous Banat, the beauty of landscape, the well preserved rural civilization, the proximity of the biggest town in the western part of Romania as well as the severe decline of important industrial activities created a favorable context for the development of this domain. The paper realizes a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the rural tourism in the area emphasizes the spatial, temporal and typological aspects of these activities as well as the main aspects involved in the future development.

Title of the Paper: Enhancing Energy Efficiency of Office Buildings in a Tropical Climate, Malaysia

Authors: S. Sadrzadehrafiei, K. Sopian, S. Mat, C. Lim, H. S. Hashim, A. Zaharim

Pages: 209-216

Abstract: This study investigates the enhancement of office building energy efficiency, based on the effects of passive solar design techniques. Energy efficiency is potentially achieved by installing insulation materials in the external walls and roofs of buildings, and applying advanced glazing. The Chancellery office building of University Kebangsaan Malaysia was chosen as the test bed for simulation studies. Integrated Environmental Solutions (IES) software was used to model the office building, as well as analyze thermal performance and cost benefits. This study found that by applying advanced glazing and insulation to the external walls and roofs of a building, annual energy consumption can be reduced by 215790 (KWh), in comparison to a building without insulation and advanced glazing.

Title of the Paper: Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Identity, Topophillia and Territoriality in Terms of Local and Regional Development. Case Study: Timisoara and Banat (Romania)

Authors: C?t?lina Ancu?a

Pages: 217-225

Abstract: The perpetuation of inequalities of development in the last half century, despite numerous theories and models, has focused the researchers’ attention towards the virtues of endogenous development and towards the importance of local communities as territorial actors. Expanding the paradigm of development studies led to the consideration of subjects such as: Social Geography and Behavioral Geography. Under the influence of phenomenology, these subjects provide the theory and methodology necessary to explore the essential elements for the success of developmental strategies, namely: identity, topophillia (attachment to the territory) and territoriality (territorial behavior). The article defines these concepts, also predicting recent developments in their structure and mechanisms of formation. The article presents methods of research and provides two case studies - one on local level (Timisoara), and the other on regional level (Banat region).

Title of the Paper: Creating Sustainability in Central Courtyard Houses in Desert Regions of Iran

Authors: Mansour Nikpour, Shahrzad Shamsolmaali, Hamzeh Dehghani, Mohd Zin Kandar

Pages: 226-233

Abstract: Nowadays, most of houses were designed and constructed without enough respect to the both environmental and spiritual aspects of human being’s life. As there is a close relation between human and nature, Iranian traditional architects have brought natural elements such as (water, soil, wind and light) the residential spaces as much as possible through designing central courtyard in houses. In this paper natural elements which are exist in central courtyard were investigated through observation and previous studies. Presence of each elements and then the role and importance of each elements and its effect on creating sustainability were clarified. The result of this research demonstrated that presence of natural elements with designing central courtyard help architect to create convenience condition for users environmentally and spiritually with respect to the hard climatic condition of desert area. Central courtyard and proper utilization of natural elements could be as useful strategies to comply the purpose of sustainable architecture for further designing.

Title of the Paper: Reuse the Nanjing Ancient City Wall in Urban Landscape

Authors: Chen Rong

Pages: 234-242

Abstract: With thousands of years of history, China has many historical features and artifacts, such as the Ancient City Wall of Nanjing. The magnificent city wall forms the unique characteristic in Nanjing with its distinctive shape and exquisite technology. It is an important symbol of the ancient city. To protect ancient city wall is to continue the city life. However, the protection of ancient relics is not simply preserving the integrity of form. To continue cultural context and pursue the sites spirit in view of urban landscape space design increasingly arouse our attention and thinking about the historical sites’ protection and reuse. While the city changes so rapidly and after such social vicissitudes during six-hundred years, what mission the ancient city wall will carry? How to re-examine the historical sites with a new vision and make it become eternal cultural symbols and spiritual memory of the city? This is the focus to be discussed. This paper expounds from several aspects: protect ancient city wall sites, join modern energy and create humane urban landscape space. It stressed there should establish a set of complete theoretical system, to explain and reappearance the spiritual connotation with a kind of new design methods, to look for the close relationship between landscape design and spirit of place, and to develop a kind of design approaches originated from site, link it with natural background, historical culture and regional characteristics. Thus make the ancient city wall revived from modern civilization, and also let our cities present an unique spiritual charm rely on its own historical and cultural background.

Title of the Paper: The Architecture of Liao Dynasty and Jin Dynasty's Different Inheritance Leading to the Style of Tang Dynasty- Analysis from Liao, Jin Monastic Architecture in Datong Examples

Authors: Ji Jianle, Xie Yiyin, Chen Rong, He Shuyue

Pages: 243-250

Abstract: Tang Buildings represents the highest level in China’s traditional wood structure building architecture. The Song, Liao, JinDynasty witnessed the evolution built on the Tang Building styles.There are many sites for the monastic architecture in Liao and Jindynasties in Datong. From the analysis of the sites, it is concluded that:the evolution comes directly from Tang style, but there is acomplication of details, with the wide usage of inclined Dougong.

Title of the Paper: Development of a Marine Ecosystem Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Model and Its Application to a Fishery Depression Problem

Authors: Shoichi Kiyama

Pages: 251-259

Abstract: This study provides a methodology to assess the long term economic activity and natural resource stock. Application of the methodology for the case of depression in the Japanese clam fishery assists in finding better measures for regional sustainable development. The conventional renewable resource stock model is extended to consider an environmental variation, which may have become an adverse factor for resource depletion and the resultant fishery depression. Considering previous qualitative findings, the model assumes that feeding damage established after the fishery releases seedlings for the clam stock increase is the cause of the depression. A dynamic two-country model is combined with the resource stock model, and then sequentially solved. Following model verification, an empirical study on clam fishery depression is conducted to estimate the long term regional economic output of the industry and the clam stock. Furthermore, the current clam resource stock and the reason for the occurrence of the clam fishery depression are determined. The relationship between feeding damage by seedling release and overexploitation of the clam resource is reasonably discussed.

Title of the Paper: Perspective of Sustainable Development in Malaysia

Authors: Omidreza Saadatian, Lim Chin Haw, Sohif Bin Mat, Kamaruzzaman Sopian

Pages: 260-267

Abstract: Malaysia is a country which has ratified Kyoto Protocol and has decided to be a developed country by 2020. Therefore, it needs to fulfill the requirements of being a developed country, not only in economic and technology aspect but also in different aspects of sustainable development. Very few studies have been undertaken to show the efforts and initiatives of Malaysia in the realm of sustainability. This study has tried to explore Malaysian efforts and initiatives and find its relevance to sustainability through utilization archival method. It has also proposed a solution to foster the progress towards incorporating sustainability in Malaysia. The result will throw lights for the academicians and policy makers who are working on sustainability topics.

Title of the Paper: A Novel Titania-Based Photocatalyst for Water Purification

Authors: Elena Savinkina, Galina Kuzmicheva, Lyubov Obolenskaya

Pages: 268-275

Abstract: The recently reported nanosize η-modification of titanium dioxide was studied as a photocatalyst for water purification. Its synthesis was modified to increase the yield up to 95% and prepare the particles with variable parameters. The photocatalytic activity of η-TiO2, which was studied in the model reactions of dye degradation under UV radiation, strongly depends on crystallite size, pre-treatment of the samples, and pH. It increases with the increase of pH and retains on multiply usage.

Title of the Paper: Study of Sulphate Corrosion Simulations on Concrete Composites

Authors: Stevulova N., Ondrejka Harbulakova V., Estokova A., Luptakova A., Repka M.

Pages: 276-283

Abstract: The paper is focused on the investigation of the influence of aggressive sulphate environment on the concrete material. The concrete specimens with coal fly ash addition as well as without coal fly ash were studied. The aggressive environment was represented by sulphuric acid and aluminium sulphate solution. Water environment was also used as reference medium. The experiments proceeded during the five 7-days cycles. The pH values and chemical composition of leachates were measured and evaluated after each cycle. Concrete specimens visual changes as well as the weight changes were observed at the end of experiments. The higher resistance of concrete samples with the addition of 5% and 10% of coal fly ash to the aggressive environment wasn’t confirmed.

Title of the Paper: Interior Space Organizations of Shopping Centers that Forms with Public Social and Cultural Changes

Authors: Gozen Guner Aktas

Pages: 284-291

Abstract: This study discusses the space organizations of contemporary shopping centers as a consequence of public and cultural changes in Turkey. Every social change, transformation and development finds a spatial counterpart. Changes and transformations have been recorded regarding Turkish social life, cultural life, city life and built environments in the last decade. This study aims to analyze the social and cultural changes that have prepared the emergence of contemporary shopping centers in Turkey. The content of the study includes transformations in Turkish social and cultural life. Changes in consumption patterns in Turkish public life and the contemporary outputs of transformation as a shopping center will be discussed with their reflections on the space organizations of shopping centers.

Title of the Paper: Life Cycle Cost Analysis on Glass Type of Malaysian Office Buildings for Reducing Energy Consumption CO2 Emissions

Authors: S. Sadrzadehrafiei, K. Sopian, S. Mat, Ch. Lim, H. S. Hashim, A. Zaharim

Pages: 292-299

Abstract: The energy saving that can be achieved by applying advanced glazing to a typical office building in Malaysia was evaluated using the simulation software Integrated Environmental Solutions (IES). It was found that application of low-e glazing would lead to a reduction in cooling electricity use by up to 6.4%. The annual cost saving due to application of low-e reverse glazing would be up to 2.1%; single low-e glazing up to 3.1%; and double low-e glazing up to 3.9%. The analysis suggests that the application of expensive advanced glass for the six- story rise office in Malaysia would not be economically viable from the point of view of saving in cooling energy cost.

Issue 3, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Adsorption of Water and CO2 on Calcite and Clathrate Hydrate: The Effect of Short-Range Forces and Temperature

Authors: Phan Van Cuong, Bjørn Kvamme, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Bjørnar Jensen

Pages: 301-309

Abstract: The promising technique of carbon sequestration ingeological formations can contribute both to greenhouse effectreduction and enhanced oil recovery. Given that all processesoccurring during injection, post-injection, and storage occur in theporous rock matrix, the interactions and reactions between CO2,water, and minerals will be of utmost importance and must becarefully considered. We applied molecular dynamics (MD)simulations to study interfacial systems that included both aqueous,carbon dioxide, and mineral surfaces with the focus on the impact offorce field, calcite and temperature variations. Our investigationshowed that CO2 transport and interface stability were substantiallyaffected by temperature, calcite, and force field utilized. Astemperature increased, the number of CO2 molecule crossing waterlayer and adsorbing on calcite surface increased while adsorptionstability deteriorated. When we applied Buckingham potentialbetween water and calcite, all other interactions were Lennard-Jones(L-J), electrostatic contribution proved to be the deciding factor withthe coordination of CO2 oxygen towards the calcium ions in calcitebeing the most important factor that ensures the stability of calcium-CO2 pairs. When Buckingham potential is applied for both watercalciteand CO2-calcite interactions, with the rest being L-J in form,the CO2 coordination towards the carbonate becomes the dominantorientation instead.

Title of the Paper: The Birth of Sustainable Development

Authors: Omidreza Saadatian, Sohif bin Mat, Ch. Lim, Saman Daneshmand, K. Sopian

Pages: 310-317

Abstract: Environmental disasters, economical crises and social challenges urged the mankind to go back to the drawing table and think fundamentally. That led to the birth of a new term named sustainable development coined by the former Norwegian prime minister namely Gr Brundtland. Despite numerous research and studies on different aspect of sustainable development, very few studies have covered the history of this concept. “The birth of sustainable development” intends to throw insight on the emergence of this term through a historical research methodology. The paper highlighted the nomad beliefs, various religions, notions, declarations and international land mark sustainable development events. The results expose that the sustainable development concept has been coined 25 years ago; nevertheless, it has been practiced for thousands of years and even by primitive people. The historical review also indicates that despite all of the efforts of international community, the current situation of the world in term of sustainable development is not satisfactory.

Title of the Paper: Exhibition Space as Art Space

Authors: Luís Miguel de Barros Moreira Pinto, Maria Celsa Gil

Pages: 318-325

Abstract: We can do multiple forms of space approach, i.e. thespaces have physical characteristics. We can assume multiple ways ofinterpretation for the characterization. All the theory about conceptan idea of architectural space belongs to the world of thought, theideals of rationalism, organicism, abstractionism and empiricism arefundamental. We will demonstrate how from a theoreticalconceptualization about the predominance of the space we couldbecome to understand an exhibition space/area. We will interpretedan exhibition held in 2009, where the architect drafted a project tothe interior space of an old and historical house, in the city of TorresVedras, in Portugal, for an artistic event of contemporary art, namedas the "(s) pace real", and transform it in an exhibition area where theunderlying theme is the component of the missing space, water andwind.In this research work we studied several spaces, whose variety isthe result of advertising formats developed by (ES)paco Realexposition and “Arquiespaco” model.

Title of the Paper: More Sustainable Urban Planning in Connection with Public Transport

Authors: Mojca Sasek Divjak

Pages: 326-333

Abstract: The focus of the article is on the connection between the city development and an effective public transport in Ljubljana urban region. The spread of scattered single-family housing is typical for these suburban areas. Extensive suburbanisation with relatively low settlement densities has negative effects on efficient land exploitation, environment and economy. Such type of housing means the wasteful use of land and has frequently insufficient communal infrastructure. These districts generate a large volume of transport, especially by car. They need urban restructuring and renewal, condensation of settling and better connection with an effective public transport. For the planning concept in the corridor of the light rail line we propose the model of decentralised settlement concentration. It gives priority to the development of several urban subcentres or densely built-up settlements along the public transport lines, more precisely around the stations. We present such model at three different levels: regional, sub-regional and local.

Title of the Paper: Researches Regarding Pulverous Ferrous Waste Processing by Pelletizing

Authors: Socalici Ana, Ardelean Erika, Heput Teodor, Ardelean Marius

Pages: 334-341

Abstract: The paper presents the results obtained in laboratory experiments, regarding the obtaining of pellets, produced from ferrous pulverous waste. The pellets produced within the experiments are made of fine and powder scrap, come as waste material from theiron & steel industry, i.e. steel plant dust, sludge agglomeration,siderite wastage concentrate, red mud, limestone dust, dolomite dust,blast furnace slag and coke dust.

Title of the Paper: Research on the Use of Waste to Reducing Slag Formation

Authors: Pu?an Adriana, Pu?an Vasile, Vîlceanu Lucia, Socalici Ana

Pages: 342-349

Abstract: The paper introduces the results of industrial experiments on the use of synthetic slags resulted from melting mechanical mixtures of industrial wastes, used in steelmaking in order to refine steel inside the ladle. The industrial experiments we performed consisted in adding the waste mechanical mixture at the bottom of the ladle, its melting leading to the formation of synthetic slag. The use of such industrial wastes in order to form slag reducing, economical, as well as ecological effects. To determine the efficiency of working with synthetic slags, we performed a series of correlation between the efficiency of desulphurization and deoxidation considered as independent parameters and specific amount of synthetic slag and CaO content. Results obtained by processing data are expressed as MATLAB graphical and analytical form. On the graphics could determine the most representative areas of variation of dependent parameters. Also determined a correlation equation between desulphurization and deoxidation efficiency of steel.

Title of the Paper: Modeling the Effect of Salt Removing Species in Crop Rotation

Authors: J. Ben Asher, J. Beltrao, U. Aksoy, D. Anac, S. Anac

Pages: 350-359

Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate SWAP model (Soil Water Atmosphere Plant) ability to account salt removal by crops and for various salinity effects in field crops irrigated with saline water. The test was conducted in the Negev desert of Israel, Faro / Algarve / Portugal and Izmir / Turkey. Soil profiles of salinity and water content were simulated using SWAP and compared them with observed data. The comparative test under the local climatic and soil initial conditions showed that .in the simulated and the observed results, fresh water treatment benefited from the higher water quality and used water more efficiently than the other treatments. The salinity threshold value disappeared probably because of high salinity and extreme climatic conditions with a large number of days exceeded 40 ?C. The reasonable agreement that was found between observed and measured results (demonstrated by a very high determination coefficient = 0.8 - 0.9) paved the way to test alternate scenarios of crop rotation and water use efficiency under arid conditions and saline water irrigation.

Title of the Paper: Controlling and Simulating the Use of Salt Removing Species

Authors: J. Ben Asher, J. Beltrao, U. Aksoy, D. Anac, S. Anac

Pages: 360-369

Abstract: The aims of this study were to control and to simulate and to simulate the salt removal by crops irrigated with saline water and salt and water balances, under saline conditions. As an additional objective, the concept of crop rotation as a method to reduce soil salinity by alternating salt removing crops with salt sensitive crops was tested. Experimental work and the SWAP model (Soil Water Atmosphere Plant) were used to reach these objectives. The experimental work and the tests were conducted in the Negev desert of Israel, Faro / Algarve / Portugal and Izmir / Turkey. Soil profiles of salinity and water content were simulated using SWAP and compared them with observed data. In addition, it was compared measured and calculated transpiration from field experiment with several salinity treatments (electrical conductivity ranged from 1.2 up to 10 dS/m). The complete seasonal water and salt balances were analyzed. The comparative test under the local climatic and soil initial conditions showed that in the simulated and the observed results, fresh water treatment benefited from the higher water quality and used water more efficiently than the other treatments.

Title of the Paper: Urban Sustainability and Spatial Quality: Urban Law in Medium-Sized Cities

Authors: Adriana Gelpi, Rosa Maria Locatelli Kalil, Tanise Spielmann, Acácio Dolci Rosalen

Pages: 370-377

Abstract: This paper is about urban planning and sustainability of cities through their spatial organization and municipal laws. It selects parameters of urban sustainability and evaluates if the municipal master plan of a medium-sized city, in Brazil, already reviewed after the City Statute approval, considered them, under the conception and implementation of its urban master plan. After comparative study of master plan and the accomplishment of field survey, the research allows to assert that the implementation of sustainability parameters selected by work, qualify in spatial and environmentally the city of Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil.

Title of the Paper: A Decade of Land-Art: Ingrandes Sur Loire Case Studies

Authors: Vincent Bouvier, Muriel Bouvier, Jon Bryan Burley

Pages: 378-387

Abstract: Since post-World War II, environmental land art hasgained in significance and popularity. In our case studies, we presentseven examples of land art by American students from MichiganState University and French students from Agrocampus Ouest(formerly INH-Paysage) constructed in 2005. In addition, we presentselected projects from other years (2004-2009) within the last decadeby French students participating in the workshop. The study area wasthe primary river terrace of the Loire River, near Ingrandes sur Loire,France. The projects facilitate transforming theory and paper designsinto full scale interventions. This type of educational activity can beimplemented by artists, environmental designers, and landscapearchitects at other academic settings.

Issue 4, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Health Risk Assessment in Atrium-Type Buildings

Authors: P. Tint, A. Traumann

Pages: 389-396

Abstract: In the study the indoor air quality assessment in office-rooms is given. The present investigation includes three atrium-type buildings (A built in 2003, B – in 2009, C- in 2010) where accordingly 120 (building A), 360 (building B), 90 (building C) scientific and administrative workers work. The workers’ opinion on the existing work conditions was assessed. The atrium’s (floor area 15x15 metres) roof in the buildings (A) is tightly covered with glass, the windows of the building towards the atrium are closed-type. So the office-workers, whose rooms’ windows are towards the atrium, never feel fresh air. The other building (B) with atrium inside (15x30 metres) was built with opened windows closed to the atrium. The roof of this atrium is also built from glass but there is a 2 to 5-metre break between the walls and the roof. It gives the possibility for office-workers to open the windows and have the fresh air. The third building (C) is fourth-storeyed and the windows are large, but cannot be opened. The atrium (30x30 metres) is comfortable, the workers use it during the rest-time. The main results of the investigation: the indoor air is too dry in winter season (relative humidity 10-20%); the air temperature in the workrooms depends on the rooms’ location in the building and the relaxation time of the temperature is too high (the rooms are not heated or cooled with enough speed according to the sudden changes of the outdoor air temperature); if the room area is smaller than 10 m2 per worker, then the concentration of CO2 is over the limits (>800 ppm); noise is a problem when the ventilation is working in a very high capacity. The concentration of dust is low and the moisture in the rooms (causing bad smell) is observed only in the first floor closed to the atrium.

Title of the Paper: LCA in the Construction Industry: A Review

Authors: Matthias Buyle, Johan Braet, Amaryllis Audenaert

Pages: 397-405

Abstract: The last decades, there is a growing interest for reducing the environmental impact of buildings. Mostly the focus is on reducing energy consumption and eco-friendly materials, but importance of life-cycle thinking is growing. This paper tries to give an overview of the current situation of Life cycle assessment (LCA) in the construction industry, both of regulatory developments and academic case studies. After a short history of LCA, the focus is on LCA methodology, new standards and frameworks and recent case studies. Despite inherent limitations of LCA as an analytic tool and the differences between the individual cases, some common trends can be indicated. In standard buildings, the use phase contributes up to 90 % of the total environmental burdens, mainly due to heating and/or cooling. As new buildings become more energy efficient, other phases of the life cycle gain importance, like choice of materials, construction, end-of-life and water use. This are research topics which deserve more attention, together with economic issues and the improvement of data quality.

Title of the Paper: The Impact of Recreational Pressure on Urban Pine Forest Vegetation in Riga City, Latvia

Authors: Inga Straupe, Ilze Jankovska, Solvita Rusina, Janis Donis

Pages: 406-414

Abstract: The article focuses on the analysis of impact of recreational pressure on Myrtillosa type pine forest vegetation in Riga city, Latvia. The composition of the plant communities, projective coverage of tree, shrub, herb and moss layer as well as the coverage of each separate species and plant strategy types has been evaluated. All urban Myrtillosa type pine forests can be divided into two groups – unimpacted and impacted pine forests. Insignificant changes of forest environment are preserved in in three plant communities 1 - Pyrola rotundifolia-Pinus sylvestris (Bulli and Mangalsala), 2 – Pleurozium schreberii-Pinus sylvestris (Bolderaja, Jaunciems and Smerlis), 3 – Calamagrostis epigeios-Pinus sylvestris (Jugla and Bikernieki). Significant changes and degradation are observed in other three plant communities of impacted pine forests: 4 – Amelanchier spicata-Pinus sylvestris (Kleisti, Katlakalns, Sampeteris and Ulbroka), 5 – Acer platanoides-Pinus sylvestris (Imanta); 6 – Cotoneaster lucidus-Pinus sylvestris (Mezaparks, Vecdaugava and Babelite. Vegetation analyses didn't confirm the predicted model of spatial distribution of forest recreational visits/year on foot. Further research is needed in order to obtain more precise results that take into consideration the missing parameters of environmental, site and social attributes.

Title of the Paper: James W. Hawks, Jr., ASLA: Polychrome Land Development in the Upper Midwest

Authors: Jon Bryan Burley, Luis Loures, Mengwen Feng

Pages: 415-423

Abstract: Planners, designers, academics, and governmentalagencies are interested in the knowledge base concerning developingsites that contain restraints and difficulties that hamper the thoughtfuluse of land. Unlike green fields, gray fields, and brown fields, ofteneach site has unique characteristics (political, economic, cultural, andenvironmental) that make these land parcels individual andspecialized cases; thus the term polychrome fields. In thisinvestigation, the procedures and practices of James W. Hawks, Jr. incoordination with Centurion Company in the late 1970s and early1980s illustrate the development of polychrome sites. The study areais in the eastern suburbs of the Twin Cities (Minneapolis/St. Paul),Minnesota. In addition, we present the formative period in Mr.Hawk’s career, when he was a partner in Midwest Planning andResearch, Inc., originating in 1956 through the early 1980s.

Title of the Paper: Severe Forest Fires: Assessment Methods and Reclamation Techniques

Authors: Luís Loures, Susana Dias, Tiago Ramos, José Nunes, Ana Viegas

Pages: 424-432

Abstract: Fire effects on soils result from the combination of the amount of heat released (fire intensity) and its duration. This combination between fire intensity and duration is denominated as fire severity, and it is used to measure the effects of forest fires. Fire severity and intensity have been commonly considered synonyms, however this is a mistake as fire intensity is a component of fire severity, being related to the amount and rate of fuel consumed, and therefore not being representative of the total amount of energy produced during the forest fire process. The most influent component of fire severity is fire duration as lower intensity and slow movement fires causes more damages than fast and high intensity fires. This research addresses effects and impacts of forest fires not only in soil, properties considering short-term, long-term and permanent changes depending on type of property affected, fire severity and frequency, and climacteric conditions after fire, but also on water properties, which are less known, harder to visualize, and more difficult to comprehend and assess. Additionally this research presents some practical examples of landscapes affected by severe forest fires assessing both the methods and techniques used on their reclamation, and their advantages and disadvantages.

Title of the Paper: Rehabilitation of the Rural Built Heritage in Central Algarve: From the Coastline Urban Areas to the Scarcely Populated Inland Region

Authors: Miguel Reimão Costa, Desidério Batista

Pages: 433-442

Abstract: Rural settlements and landscape constructions have gradually played a bigger role on the discussions focusing on heritage conservation and rehabilitation. Reasons for this include the conceptual development of heritage and the quantifiable changes affecting rural heritage in the last few decades. This article will analyse the purpose of rural heritage conservation in the specific region of the Algarve, in southern Portugal. In this region, rural built heritage intervention inscribes itself in a number of thematic approaches covering different models for territorial occupation, landscape units or the typo-morphological classification of buildings. The following analysis will consider such conceptualisations when proposing tailored solutions for the diverse circumstances covered by this region. The differences that separate the region’s urbanised coastal areas from the scarcely populated inland areas will therefore be taken into account here. In the context of contemporary landscape transformation, this article will propose guidelines for the preservation of rural heritage in the Algarve based on a concise analysis of its traditional economy and on the different population trends of its regional units.

Title of the Paper: The Process of Landscape (Trans)formation: A Methodology for Sustainable Intervention in Contemporary Landscape

Authors: Desidério Batista, Miguel Reimão Costa

Pages: 443-452

Abstract: Resulting from two different evolutionary processes - 4000 million years of biological changes and the cultural process of human inhabitation of the planet - landscape makes evident the level of integration of its natural and cultural dimensions. The cultural context (ensuing from the transformations imposed by human population) affects the natural environment and the overall construction of landscape. For centuries, the relationship between society and territory was harmonious and balanced, producing urban, rural and natural constructed landscapes which were not only attractive and productive, but formed a core part of our shared heritage and the basis for our European identity. More recently, however, sectarian and utilitarian visions ruled by the principles of easy and maximum profit have become prevalent, side-by-side with new dominant trends of human intervention which have assisted in the adulteration and degradation of landscape. If a more sustainable approach to the organisation of contemporary landscape is to be defined, this will have to be based on the in-depth knowledge of its values, dynamics, problems and contradictions. This approach will have to jointly consider the landscape’s natural and cultural aspects in the planning process and use both of these dimensions for the definition of the objectives presiding landscape preservation and transformation. Only such a methodology, which respects the heritage and identity of landscape, can be said to foster the long-term development of both society and nature. In the context of the changeable dynamics typical of contemporary landscapes, this article contributes to the formulation of an intervention methodology based on an ecological and cultural reading of the landscape in order to apply the method used in landscape ecology to the conurbation of central Algarve coast.

Title of the Paper: The Role of Urban Parks to Enhance Metropolitan Sustainability: The Case of Oporto

Authors: Luis Loures, Laura Costa

Pages: 453-461

Abstract: Throughout the past century, the World’s population had been rapidly congregating in urban areas. Increasing population and urbanization is recognized as one of the most complex process at global scale. This massive urbanization begun in the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century and the decline of nature during the twentieth century increased public awareness to the necessity of introducing natural assets and components in urban contexts, what led to the creation and development of the urban park movement with the objective of increasing life quality in the modern city. In this scenario sustainable development have been recognized as widely accepted strategic framework considering city planning and the creation of urban parks play an important role in it. Nonetheless, it is argued, that urban parks and other open green spaces are important for the quality of life of an increasingly urbanized society. This paper approaches three different urban park projects of the Oporto metropolitan area. These case studies were examined and analyzed with objective to study how does urban green spaces contribute to ecological, social and economic sustainability of metropolitan landscapes, addressing the importance of urban nature for citizens’ quality of life and sustainable city development.

Title of the Paper: Evaluating the Sustainability of the Flemish Residential Construction Sector: Methodology for Simplified Designs

Authors: Matthias Buyle, Amaryllis Audenaert, Johan Braet

Pages: 462-469

Abstract: Last decades there is a growing awareness for enhancing the sustainability of our society, either in research, policy and industry. This evolution has also affected the construction sector with a growing awareness to reduce environmental burdens. This paper starts with a description of tools to examine sustainability on a scientific basis considering the entire life cycle of buildings, like Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC). Despite some inherent limitations, these instruments are useful to indicate hotspots of environmental burdens and indicate potential improvements. From current academic case studies some overall trends can be derived: the dominance of the use phase, the growing importance of other life cycle phases, as energy efficiency of buildings increases, and the negligibility of transportation. This knowledge will provide a basis for a new project to evaluate sustainability of the Flemish residential construction sector. First, an evaluation will be made of the current practice by collaborating with project developers, since they work with more standardized designs. The main topic will be modeling simplified standard designs, which are representative for the Flemish context. In this model, there will be worked with distributions instead of deterministic values, to improve the reliability of the results. Then, the results will be used to formulate possible improvements, both for the individual companies as for the current and future policy and subsidies.

Title of the Paper: Identity Formation in Cultural Environments: Traditional Turkish House Interiors

Authors: Nur Ayalp

Pages: 470-477

Abstract: A cultural place is an environment where people construct their collective identity. In collective memory, place identities turn in to cultural identity reflecting traditional values. The aim of this study is to develop a model to correlate the concepts of cultural identity, place identity, and space. Traditional Turkish House Interiors is selected as an example of a cultural heritage reflecting the identity of a collective image. The interior design formation of a typical Traditional Turkish house is discussed in the context of cultural and place identity concepts.

Issue 5, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Mix Hydrate Formation by CH4-CO2 Exchange using Phase Field Theory with Implicit Thermodynamics

Authors: M. Qasim, K. Baig, B. Kvamme, J. Bauman

Pages: 479-487

Abstract: Natural gas hydrates are ice-like structures composedof water and gas (mostly methane) molecules. They are foundworldwide and contain huge amounts of bound methane. Therefore, itrepresent potentially vast and yet untapped energy resources.Hydrates from carbon dioxide are thermodynamically more stablethan methane hydrate over large regions of condition. Mixed hydratesof structure I, in which methane occupies the small cavities are morestable than methane hydrate over all ranges of pressures andtemperatures. The exchange of originally bound methane in hydratewith carbon dioxide is a great way to achieve two goals, the in siturelease of hydrocarbon gas and a cleaner environment through safestorage of carbon dioxide. The resulting hydrate is a mix. Carbondioxide can only replace methane in large cavities due to its size andtherefore it forms mix methane-carbon dioxide hydrate with methanein the small cavities and a maximum theoretical exchange of 75% ofthe in situ methane. An improved thermodynamic model is implicitlyimplemented in phase field theory to study the kinetic rates due to theexchange process. A thin layer of water between methane hydrateand carbon dioxide is implemented in addition to the initial methanefor a more realistic representation of a reservoir situation in whichhydrate saturation is always lower than 100%. The nucleation onwater-carbon dioxide interface is expected to be very slow comparedto the growth rate. To trigger the carbon dioxide hydrate formationfour small regions of carbon dioxide hydrate are placed on the watercarbondioxide interface. The exchange process involves an initialdissociation of methane hydrate and the carbon dioxide will startforming hydrate. In term of Gibbs phase rule the system cantheoretically reach equilibrium as limit if pressure and temperature isdefined and the final hydrate is uniform. On the other hand thelimited size of the system and the initial balance of masses of thethree components methane, carbon dioxide and water will not makeequilibrium possible in the model system. This implies also thatkinetic rates of hydrate formation, hydrate reformation anddissociation will depend on composition of surrounding phases andcorresponding free energies. This is also the expected situation in aporous media like a hydrate reservoir, in which the hydrate is in astationary balance with fluids and typically kept trapped by layers ofclay or shale. Phase field theory is a tool for evaluation of kineticrates of different phase transitions as well as the relative impact ofthermodynamic control and mass transport control. Heat transport isvery rapid compared to mass transport and is neglected in this work.

Title of the Paper: Air Changes and Extraction Flow Rate Analysis of Wind-Induced Natural Ventilation Tower under Hot and Humid Climatic Conditions

Authors: Chin Haw Lim, Omidreza Saadatian, M. Yusof Sulaiman, Sohif Mat, K. Sopian

Pages: 488-495

Abstract: Wind-induced natural ventilation tower is not acommon architectural features in countries located under the hot andhumid climatic conditions. It is more commonly found in countrieswith hot and dry climatic conditions like Iran and other MiddleEastern countries. There are mainly two methods for inducingnatural ventilation; namely stack ventilation and wind-inducedventilation. Due to the relatively lower difference between theindoor and outdoor temperature in hot and humid climatic conditions,stack ventilation method alone is rendered insufficient to createdesirable air flow in the indoor building environment to achievecomfort and indoor air quality for the building occupant. Hence,wind-induced ventilation tower application has potential to createdesired air flow rates and improve the indoor air quality for thebuilding. The results of this research revealed that at external windspeed of 0.1m/s, the aerodynamic design of the inverted airfoil roofon the wind-induced natural ventilation tower is able to generateextraction air flow rate of 10,000m3/hr with average of 57 airchanges per hour (ACH). This paper presents the viability of theapplication of wind-induced natural ventilation tower in hot andhumid climatic conditions.

Title of the Paper: Assesement of Urban Risk in the City of Timisoara (Romania)

Authors: Catalina Ancuta, Claudia Mutulescu

Pages: 496-507

Abstract: The study of urban risk is subordinate to the general frame of risk within territorial systems. Thus, the knowledge of risk factors enables within urban systems the optimization of the ability to anticipate, control and manage risks. Urban risk represents a complex concept, including several components. The evaluation of integrated risk represents for local authorities a method to ensure an efficient and sustainable management. The present study has as starting point the risk theory, especially the urban risk theory, and offers an analysis of risk within the city of Timisoara, a post-communist city where local authorities reassumed the role of self-manager after a period of half of century. In this context, the evaluation of risk is of real interest. According to the information possibilities, the study shows the premises of risks within the analyzed territory and focuses on traffic risk, crime risk and perception of risk.

Title of the Paper: Measurements of Particle Concentrations and Size Distributions in Three Parking Garages

Authors: M. Obaidullah, I. V. Dyakov, L. Peeters, S. Bram, J. De Ruyck

Pages: 508-515

Abstract: Particulate matter (PM) emissions are a major concern nowadays because the presence of particles diameter less than 2.5 µm in the ambient air have higher risk for human health. This study undertaken aimed to evaluate the indoor PM concentration in three parking garages in Belgium with varying traffic flow and varying layouts. Two garages A and B are located at the ground floor and basement respectively of different multi-storey buildings in Brussels, while another garage C is at the ground floor of a multi-storey building in Leuven. An Electrical Low Pressure Impactor Plus (ELPI+) instrument was used to conduct under this study. Parking places of the garages vary from in the range of 50-190 no. of cars. In this study, three size fractions of particles PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations together with number concentrations were measured on three working days during February and March 2012. Both particle mass and number size distributions were characterized in this investigation. Overall mean results of particle mass concentrations all the three garages were obtained from 28±1 to 50±5 µg/Nm3 for PM1, 43±3 to 60±9 µg/Nm3 for PM2.5, 58±13 to 90±27 µg/Nm3 for PM10 respectively. In average PM1 concentrations accounted for about 47-66% of the PM10 for all the garages while PM2.5 accounted for about 60-80% of the PM10 fractions. All the three garages, it has been observed that PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the 24h reference guidelines values recommended by WHO (World Health Organization) and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) while and PM10 concentrations exceeded WHO and EU (European Union). The particle number concentrations were in the range of 28E+03 to 47E+03 particles/cm3. There were two distinct particle sizes of coarse and fine modes observed in the particle mass size distributions in all examined garages, while the observed number size distributions showed dominant quantities of fine particles.

Title of the Paper: Changes on Foliar Nutrients, Proteins and Photosynthetic Pigments due to Controlled Exposures to Sulfur Dioxide in Rhizophora Mangle, Laguncularia Racemosa and Conocapus Erectus Individuals

Authors: Ceron-Breton, J. G., Ceron-Breton, R. M., Guerra-Santos, J. J., Aguilar-Ucan, C., Montalvo-Romero, C., Guzman-Pacheco, J. J., Pena-Villarino., Carballo-Pat, C. G.

Pages: 516-523

Abstract: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, andConocarpus erectus three months old individuals were exposedduring 8 weeks, one hour daily at sulfur dioxide at three differentconcentrations (50, 100 and 150 ppb) using charcoal filtered airwithin an open-top chamber from August 8 to October 15 in 2010.Visible damages were identified, and changes on foliar nutrientsconcentrations, photosynthetic pigment content (chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total charotenoids) and solubleproteins concentrations were determined. All mangrove speciesstudied showed sensitiveness to sulfur dioxide exposure levels, beingred mangrove and buttonwood mangrove the most sensitive speciesto sulfur dioxide.

Title of the Paper: Measurement of Carbonyls and its relation with Criteria Pollutants (O3, NO, NO2, NOx, CO and SO2) in an Urban Site within the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

Authors: Facundo-Torres D.M., Ramirez-Lara E., Ceron-Breton J.G., Ceron-Breton R.M., Gracia-Vasquez Y., Miranda-Guardiola R., Rivera De La Rosa J.

Pages: 524-531

Abstract: C1-C4 carbonyls concentrations were measured at onesite located within the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey (MAM) inNuevo Le?n M?xico during spring and summer, 2011.Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were found to be the mostabundant carbonyls, with formaldehyde showing the highest levelsduring spring, while acetaldehyde was in summer. Concentrationsshowed a clear diurnal pattern with the highest values in the morningand decreasing during the afternoon period. Mean concentrations forformaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were a 61.7 and 20.4 μg m-3, 32.4 and 34.8 μg m-3 and 21.1 and 26.6 μg m-3, spring and summerrespectively. The strong correlation between C1-C2 with CO, NO andNO2 indicated a common origin for these compounds. This wassupported by a factor analysis which showed high loading on C1-C2with these criteria pollutants. The influence of local meteorologicalconditions and the 24 h back air masses trajectories showed that thesources contributing to the carbonyl levels were located at the NE ofthe sampling site where there are important industrial sources. TheC1/C2 ratios varied from 0.72 to 1.89, which can be consideredtypical of an urban area. From the PCA Analysis it was evident thatthe carbonyls measured had mixed sources (vehicular, industrialsources and photochemical activity).

Title of the Paper: Chemical Characterization of Dry Deposition of Pollutants in One Industrial Site in Guanajuato, Mexico

Authors: Ceron, R.M; Ceron, J.G; Carballo, C.G; Aguilar, C; Montalvo, C; Vargas, C; Ortinez, J.A; Cardenas, B; Cordova, A.V;; Rodriguez, M.A.

Pages: 532-539

Abstract: Dry deposition samples were collected in a weekly basisduring 2010 in a site located at Central Mexico in the State ofGuanajuato. Samples were collected with an automatic wet/drydeposition sampler using nylon filters as surrogate surfaces. Sampleswere extracted with deionized water and analyzed for pH,conductivity, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, NO3-, SO42- and Cl-. Themost abundant ions were K+,Ca2+, SO42- and NO3-, suggesting thatthe influence of local sources located at SW from the sampling sitecontributed with significant amounts of alkaline particles (from thecement plants) and acid gases precursors (from the power plant andoil refinery). From meteorological analysis, it could be observed thatthe sampling site was all time under the influence of the oil firedpower plant. However, in spite of the high levels of NO3- and SO42-found in the samples collected, pH values ranged between 5.1 and6.3, with an average value of 5.66. From the quantification of theneutralization effect of the main alkaline components, the prevalencerole of K+ and Ca2+ was completely evident, suggesting the influenceof the cement plants located upwind the sampling site. Drydeposition fluxes were estimated for all ions measured. Nitrogen drydeposition at Salamanca City is already in the upper extreme of thethreshold value reported for sensible ecosystems. On the other hand,sulphur deposition exceeded slightly the critical load value reportedfor some ecosystems in Europe. Considering that results reported inthis study not include the wet deposition fluxes, even at this moment,nitrogen and sulphur deposition is not a problem, it is necessary totake steps to avoid that total deposition of these elements exceedscritical loads.

Issue 6, Volume 6, 2012

Title of the Paper: Parametric Optimization of Kapok (Ceiba Pentandra) Oil Methyl Ester Production using Taguchi Approach

Authors: N. Norazahar, S. Yusup, M. M. Ahmad, S. Abu Bakar, J. Ahmad

Pages: 541-548

Abstract: Utilization of new feedstock for biodiesel production hasbeen explored. In this research, Kapok seed oil (KSO) with scientificname of Ceiba Pentandra has been used for synthesizing thebiodiesel. The extraction of KSO gives about 22-25% wt/wt of oil.Pre-treatment of KSO has been done using esterification process withthe presence of acid catalyst and transesterification of KOS is carriedout after the pre-treatment using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as basecatalyst. The biodiesel property of Kapok oil methyl ester (KOME)has been characterized and it shows that KOME meets the propertiesof biodiesel as stated in standard method of ASTM D6751 andEN14214.

Title of the Paper: Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Crystal Structure and Electrophysical Properties of Pb1-XMnX Te(Se) Thin Films

Authors: M. A. Mehrabova, I. R. Nuriyev

Pages: 549-556

Abstract: In the given paper the obtaining of Pb1-xMnxSe(x=0.01) and Pb1-xMnxTe (x=0.04) epitaxial nanofilms and influenseof γ-irradiation and accelerated electrons on their crystal structureand electrophysical properties have been investigated.Pb1-xMnxTe(Se) nanofilms have been grown on freshly broken andpolished substrates of BaF2 in a vacuum 10-4Pa in ???-71 ?3vacuum assembly by the molecular beams condensation method. Inthe present report are given investigation results of the structure,morphology of a surface and physical properties of Pb1-xMnxSe(x=0.02) nanofilms grown by the molecular beams condensationmethod. It has been defined, that after the γ-irradiation doses 25 kGythe parameters of nanofilms become the worst. It was established thatthe samples became more photosenstive after irradiation. Byincreasing of Mn concentration maximum of photoconductivityshifted towards short wave range. The energy gap of samplesincrease by increasing of Mn concentration.

Title of the Paper: Estimation of Parameters Distribution and Injection Process in Geothermal Reservoir

Authors: Alamta Singarimbun, Mitra Djamal, Septian Setyoko

Pages: 557-566

Abstract: The objective of this study is to develop a simulator for geothermal energy investigation. Geothermal energy is well known as a renewable and clean energy. The first step to predict the potential of geothermal energy can be estimated by modeling, among others physical and numerical simulation. In this study, we have simulated the geothermal reservoir using different parameters e.g. fluid permeability, porosity and temperature. In this study, a mathematical and numerical modeling are performed to simulate the geothermal reservoir with injection and production well in the reservoir. Mathematical modeling in this simulation is based on Darcy's law, mass balance and energy balance. The model is calculated using finite difference method. Results of the calculation are obtained in form of distribution of temperature, pressure, enthalpy and direction of fluid flow.

Title of the Paper: Current Trends of Corporate Performance Evaluation in the Building and Construction Sector

Authors: Jiri Hrebicek, Michal Hodinka, Ondrej Popelka, Oldrich Trenz

Pages: 567-578


Abstract: Current trends of corporate performance evaluation (i.e. measurement of environmental, social and governance (ESG) and economic/financial performance) including corporate sustainable reporting are introduced and discussed in the paper, which is focused on the building and construction sector. Conclusions of United Nations Environment Programme of Sustainable Buildings and Climate Initiative are combined with recommendations of the Reference Document on Best Environmental Management Practice of the Building and Construction Sector developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Union (EU) and the Regulation (EU) No 305/2011 laying down harmonized conditions for the marketing of construction products. The Construction and Real Estate Supplement (CRESS) of the Global Reporting Initiative Guidelines is also taken into account. The development of advanced methods which identify key performance indicators for ESG performance of building and construction sector is discussed here, along with the possibility of the utilization of information and communication technology and XBRL taxonomy for corporate sustainability reporting.

Title of the Paper: Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Slovenia

Authors: Danijela Dobersek, Darko Goricanec, Peter Trop

Pages: 579-587

Abstract: Wastewater treatment system in the European Union member states is unequally developed. Approximately 70% of the EU population is connected to the wastewater treatment plant. Slovenia is characterized by a high proportion of dispersed settlement, which occurs particularly in hilly and mountainous areas, which requires a specific approach in the design and construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants. The article presents the current status of treatment of municipal wastewater in the region, supported by the presentation of established legislation and implementing on-going programs.

Title of the Paper: Dryers for Sewage Sludge Dehydration

Authors: Danijela Dobersek, Darko Goricanec, Jurij Krope

Pages: 588-596

Abstract: Alternative methods for decreasing amount of communal sludge are represented in this article. The sludge is formed as a side product in processing of waste water in sewage treatment plant. Selection of optimal dryer is essential. Because of its great influence on environment, and consequentially of public health, it is necessary to select the dryer which have previously been fully examined. Different types of rotational dryers, and fluidized bed dryers, are presented in this article.