International Journal of Energy and Environment

ISSN: 2308-1007
Volume 7, 2013

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Issue 1, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Modeling of CH4/CO2 Hydrates Phase transitions


Authors: B. Kvamme, K. Baig, M. Qasim, J. Bauman

Pages: 1-8

Abstract: Natural gas hydrates in reservoirs are thermodynamically unstable due to exposure to mineral surfaces and possibly undersaturated phases of water and hydrate formers. Changes in global temperatures also alter the stability regions of the accumulations of gas hydrates worldwide. The fact that hydrates in porous media never can reach equilibrium, and formation can occur from different phases, as well as dissociate according to different thermodynamic driving forces imposes very complex phase transition dynamics. These phase transitions dynamics are solutions to coupled differential equations of mass transport, heat transport and phase transition kinetics. The availability of free energy as functions of temperature, pressure and the composition of all components in all phases in states outside of equilibrium is therefore necessary in kinetic theories based on minimisation of free energy. For this purpose we have applied an extended adsorption theory for hydrate, SRK equation of state for methane/CO2 gas and solubilities of these components in water for the limit of water thermodynamics. The thermodynamic model is developed for calculation of free energy of super saturated phase along all different gradients (mole fractions, pressure and temperature) of super saturation.

Title of the Paper: Influence of External Environmental Conditions in the Occupants Thermal Comfort Level in University Building in the South of Portugal


Authors: Eusebio Z. E. Conceicao, Joao M. M. Gomes, Vera S. F. Pires

Pages: 9-18

Abstract: In this work a numerical model is used to simulate the influence of external environmental conditions in the occupant thermal comfort, in transient conditions, of an university building in the south of Portugal. The study, developed with and without occupation, is made in summer and winter conditions. The experimental external environmental conditions are the air temperature, air relative humidity, air velocity and wind direction. The solar radiation, considered in this study, that each building main bodies and windows glasses bodies are subjected to, is calculated numerically. The building surfaces temperature, namely the building main bodies and the windows glasses bodies, and the indoor environmental conditions are calculated. The occupants thermal comfort level are evaluated in accordance with the internal air mean temperature, air mean relative humidity, air mean velocity and mean radiant temperature, for a clothing and activity level. In the numerical simulation of the university building the 344 compartments, the 2904 building main bodies and the 404 windows glasses are considered. In the natural internal ventilation one renovation, made by infiltrations, is considered

Title of the Paper: Tourism - Innovation for Sustainable Turinn Cluster Model


Authors: Mirela Mazilu

Pages: 19-26

Abstract: European Union has successfully developed such competitive economic agglomerations on the basis of public or private initiative, the "cluster policy" becoming an important element of innovation policy in the Member States, which supports an approach based on regional innovative clusters, not only in developed urban centers areas but also in poorer regions and rural areas. The observatory of European clusters has identified around 2 000 clusters that were formed either from the bottom up or top down and are supported by policies, projects and national and European funding. Clusters began to be studied in Romania for the first time, the most probably, since1998, in a study ordered by the World Bank (International Centre for Entrepreneurial Studies - CISA) which used data gathered from the 8 development regions of the country (NUTS II), and having as theoretical base Michael Porter’s micro-economic “diamond”. The study identified three “incipient” forms of clusters in software producing, naval industry and wood industry. The present stage of evolution of the human society is characterized by an unprecedented development of tourism, materialized in the inclusion of new and new regions in its range of capitalization. Therefore, not without reason, some researchers consider tourism as the most dynamic world industry of the 21-st century, which we have just entered only a decade ago. The first condition to develop leisure activities is the existence of attractive resources, the “raw material” which, by means of adequate planning, may become a proper supply. Apart from the attractions, an importance that should not be neglected is held by the position of the country compared to the general orientation of international tourism flows, the size of the domestic tourism market, the stage of economic and social development, the specialized infrastructure, the tradition of tourism activities, implementation of cluster policy, etc. The objective of this paper is to argue the importance of innovative clusters for the regional development having as example Romania. Many empirical studies emphasize a positive relationship between the cluster-like organization and the development extent at local or national level. The current article comprises a synthesis of these studies. On these grounds the formal clusters from Romania are analyzed in terms of their capacity to catalyze the regional development.

Title of the Paper: Tourism and Culture - A Vital Role in the Development of Romanian’s Destinations


Authors: Mirela Mazilu

Pages: 27-36

Abstract: There are many studies talking about the "anonymity" in which our country is sinking, in terms of international tourist identity, of the symbols that define us. The economy of knowledge facilitates the collaboration between cultural professionals worldwide, the small-scale specialization stage being surpassed. This phenomenon leads to the possibility of a broader promotion of cultural products and the emergence of a global type culture. Culture and tourism have a reciprocal beneficial relationship, which can consolidate the impact of attractiveness and competitiveness of the regions and the countries in their development. Culture is a more and more important element of the tourist product, which, also, creates distinctively on an agglomerated market, at a world level, new metamorphoses of the local, regional and national tourist product. At the same time, tourism offers a very important means of consolidation of culture and the creation of incomes which can support and consolidate the cultural heritage, the cultural production and creativeness. The creation of a strong relationship between tourism and culture can help new destinations become themselves more attractive and more competitive as places to live, to visit and to work or to invest in their sustainable development. The cultural tourism may offer alternative sources of income for the rural localities, cities, areas where the traditional industries have declined and whose economies or local communities have suffered. A flourishing cultural economy may improve the social and economical status of a city and may positively contribute to the life of the local communities. Beyond the traces of the past, the landscapes and the cultural treasures of Romania, what the traveller or the cultural tourist discovers is the spirit of the place he/she visits, the vital energy of the people he/she meets. Though strongly attached to their cultural norms and traditional values, these are special tourist flow gradually embraced contemporary history, the rapid processes of modernization of today's world, globalization and standardization in progress.

Title of the Paper: Environmental Safety House Analysis with Regard to the Structural Behavior of Wooden Construction


Authors: R. Stasiak-Betlejewska, M. Bottoni, A. di Taranto

Pages: 37-44

Abstract: Sustainability is a contemporary source of several technical and organizational solutions, which provides realization of environmental safety construction development. There are a lot of enterprises initiatives coming toward the sustainable construction promoting in Italy in the frame of environmental safety construction technologies. Italian construction follows the best practices on safety wooden houses practices. The article is interesting because it shows that the structural behavior described in the introduction is due in fact to the rotational behavior of the joint, and not to other dissipative effects (friction in various parts of the structure). The effects described in the introduction are in all cases experimentally observed coupling (curve enveloping non-linear change of stiffness reloading). The curve is symmetric since only the behavior of the joint it is shown.

Issue 2, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: Cohesion Policy Expenditures on Environment: Case of the Czech Regions


Authors: Lenka Smekalova

Pages: 45-54

Abstract: This article deal with the topic of environmental protecting and its reflection in using funds from the European Union (EU) structural funds in the Czech Republic (CR). The importance of environmental protection grows and is reflected in many areas of human activities worldwide. The EU accession had strong influence on environmental regulation and investments in the CR. Nowadays the funds are mostly prominently drawn from Operational Program Environment. The article aims to verify whether they are spent in those regions that represent the biggest environmental challenges on the level of NUTS III regions and also on level of selected NUTS IV regions. The results are quite ambiguous. While the environmental indexing created by the author shows similar results as other studies and overall public opinion presented in Czech media, contrasting the index with actual spatial distribution of EU resources does not confirm the initial idea of funds being spent where the environment is damaged the most. More detailed view on lower administrative level nevertheless confirms that the resources are actually spent on issues that are regionally perceived as very significant.

Title of the Paper: Use of Data Assimilation in an Integrated Model of the Economics of Marine Ecosystem


Authors: Shoichi Kiyama

Pages: 55-63

Abstract: To realize sustainable real-world fishery management, this paper attempts to increase the predictability the fishery needs under uncertainties of model and measurements. Practically, a data assimilation method of the extended Kalman filter is employed to estimate parameters of the bioeconomic model integrated with a computable general equilibrium model. Different from previous studies of a single bioeconomic model, the integrated model extends the state variable of fish catches to describe the trading of fish products as well as the production process of fishing. This enables the observation model to deal with not only fish catches but also the value of production. Assimilating time series data on Japanese clam fishery into the integrated model, the selection problem of observation variables is investigated to increase predictability. As a result, this study demonstrates that the identification of model parameters by the extended Kalman filter can be stably performed. An analysis of predictability shows that the most suitable observation model consists of both the fish catches and value of production.

Title of the Paper: Research of the Combustion of Low-Grade Kazakhstan Coal in Combustion Chamber of the Real Energy Facility


Authors: Askarova A., Bolegenova S., Bekmukhamet A., Maximov V., Beketayeva M.

Pages: 64-73

Abstract: Thermal Physics problems arouse great interest to study with greater practical value, also covering such important branches of science, such as physics of combustion and explosion, power system and its economic and environmental aspects. Steady interest from the application, and theoretical perspectives cause questions associated with increased efficiency of energy use with simultaneous solving an ecological problems. In the atmosphere of Kazakhstan released substances such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, dust of lead, sulfur dioxide, etc., which cause significant harm to the human body. For example, the total CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions from fuel combustion per capita emissions with electricity and heat allocated to consuming sectors in 2009: for Kazakhstan 11930 kgCO2/capita, compared to the neighboring countries Kyrgyzstan 1326 kgCO2/capita, Uzbekistan 4047 kgCO2/capita, Russian Federation 10800 kgCO2/capita, China 5138 kgCO2/capita [1]. In this regard, it is necessary not only economically profitable to produce electricity, but also closely monitor the concentration of these substances in the atmosphere. The computational experiment was performed on a real energy facility. The selected object to study was the combustion chamber of the boiler PK-39 to the power 300 MW, steam capacity 475 t/h. The boiler installed on Yermakovskaya plant (Kazakhstan). As a result of 3-D modeling of the processes of burning natural fuels (Ekibastuz coal) in the areas of real geometry (boiler PС-39) we obtain a description of the process as the fields of temperature, concentration of combustion products, including harmful substances and turbulent characteristics around the combustion space for different operational conditions of the process. The calculation area for modeling and carrying out computational experiments was created with useful program complex PREPROZ.

Title of the Paper: Optimizing Energy Performance of a Neighborhood via IMM® Methodology: Case Study of Barcelona


Authors: A. Behfar, M. M. Riyahi Alam, R. Shahmoradi, M. Tadi, S. Vahabzadeh

Pages: 74-85

Abstract: Current policies to mitigate the climate change caused by human activities are oriented toward sustainable urban transformations to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. The reason is that cities are energy-using systems in their own right, and they can use energy in dramatically more or less efficient ways. The urban settlement forms could have a disproportionately large effect over the Energy consumption and consequently on any effective long-term strategy for reducing C02 emission in atmosphere. Hence, this paper demonstrates how to transform an existing neighbourhood region (1) into a lower energy consumption system, using the IMM® (Integrated Modification Methodology). In this approach, the city is considered as a Complex Adaptive System; the research discusses how the urban system performance could be optimized via IMM®, expanding the energy efficiency goals from buildings to the urban scale, (2) including a possible mitigating solution for the Urban Heat Island phenomenon. Actually, the replacement of the existing traditional energy consuming buildings by new energy efficient or net-zero energy buildings could be a very slow process due to the economic reasons and the fact that these existing buildings are part of cultural heritage of the cities. As an energy retrofit method, a cluster of buildings in the neighborhood area was grouped together to be the subject of potential solar power installations. City of Barcelona, as the case study, with available an average solar radiation of about 1500 kWh/m2/year has a potential to produce a significant amount of energy. Secondly, IMM® methodology has been associated together with the UHI (Urban Heat Island) mitigation method; city quarter was transformed with a symbiotic integration, of built-up mass layer; open spaces, streets, etc. layer; land use layer; Transportation and Mobility Layer, in order to improve the sustainability as well the living conditions, comfort and health for inhabitants in the urban and building environment.

Title of the Paper: Distribution of Different Pollution Loads from Wastewater Treatment Plants and their Impact on Water Bodies in Estonia


Authors: Raili Niine, Enn Loigu, Karin Pachel

Pages: 86-95

Abstract: There are many small-sized wastewater treatment plants in Estonia; therefore, it is essential to analyse the cumulative impact of the pollution load from these kinds of wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater is one of the biggest causes of point source pollution and has a negative effect on the quality of water bodies. In Estonia, all water bodies are categorised as sensitive water bodies according to European Council directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 for urban wastewater treatment. Therefore, all Estonian wastewater treatment plants have much higher treatment standards than most other European regions. The aim of this study was to analyse the different pollution loads of wastewater treatment plants that are discharged to the environment in Estonia and assess what kind of wastewater treatment plants have the biggest impact on the receiving water bodies. Also, during this study, research was conducted into what kinds of wastewater pollutants have the greatest adverse effect on water bodies and what kind of steps Estonia needs to take to improve this.

Issue 3, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: Study of the Degradation of Heat-treated Jack Pine Under Different Artificial Weathering Conditions


Authors: Duygu Kocaefe, Xianai Huang, Yasar Kocaefe

Pages: 97-106

Abstract: Heat-treated wood is a natural product heat-treated at high temperatures in the range of 180 to 240°C. Heat treatment modifies wood both chemically and physically. However, heat-treated wood is susceptible to weathering degradation. It is of considerable importance to investigate the influence of weathering on the degradation processes of heat-treated wood under different conditions. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) heat-treated at different temperature were exposed to artificial weathering with and without water spray for different periods in order to understand the effect of weathering factors on degradation processes. Before and after weathering, their color and wettability by water were determined. Structural changes and chemical modifications at exposed surfaces were also investigated using florescent microscopy imaging, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy, and XPS. The results revealed that heat-treated wood was degraded more during weathering with water spray than without water spray.

Title of the Paper: Online Identification Applied on a Nonlinear Semi-Batch Process


Authors: Lubomír Macků, David Novosad

Pages: 107-114

Abstract: This paper describes the simulations of an exothermic semi batch process control. All simulations are based on a mathematical model of a real process, which runs in a semi batch reactor. The process is strongly exothermic and the temperature inside the reactor is mainly affected by the feeding speed of the chemical compound causing the reaction. Nonlinear system control is generally difficult, so it is also in this case. To tune the controller an online identification was applied. Studied were two methods, the recursive least square identification method and the same method enhanced by exponential forgetting. The mathematical simulations were performed to find an appropriate control method. Several different methods were compared to achieve the best feeding profile.

Title of the Paper: Selection of Most Promising Substrates for Biogas Production


Authors: Argo Kuusik, Aare Kuusik, Enn Loigu, Olev Sokk, Karin Pachel

Pages: 115-124

Abstract: Laboratory equipment AMTS-II was used for anaerobic batch regime testing of the methane generating potential of different organic matter: raw sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant, glycerol from biodiesel production, fish farming residues and their blends. Twenty days were sufficient to indicate proper substrate compositions. The tests performed in this study enableto avoid useless and time consuming stationary experiments and to select promising options. The results of the tests indicate, that the methane generation potentials for the studied matter were the following: 140…230 m3/Mg (Mg – mega gram, ton) for raw sludge, 300…310m3/Mg for glycerol and 260 m3/Mg for fish residues. After these tests continuous anaerobic degradations in laboratory reactors were carried out. The objective was to find out how toenhance biogas productivity of anaerobic reactors which are located by waste water treatment plants and are employed for excess sludge stabilisation. This objective can be achieved by the addition of waste residues: crude glycerol from biodiesel production and residues from fishery. The addition of glycerol in the amount of 2–5% by weight causes the enhancement of methane production of about 250–400%. At the same time, the increase of total solids percentage concentration in the outgoing sludge is ten or more times less. The content of methane in biogas is higher in the case of admixed substrate.

Title of the Paper: Energy-Economical Efficiency of Building Heating/cooling by Heat Pump Systems


Authors: Ioan Sarbu, Emilian Stefan Valea

Pages: 125-133

Abstract: In the actual economic and energy juncture, the reduction of thermal energy consumption in buildings became a major, necessary and opportune problem, general significance. The heat pumps are alternative heating systems more energy efficiency and unless pollutant if we make a comparison with classic plants (liquid or gas fuel thermal boiler). This paper presents the energy and economical efficiency criteria which show the opportunity to implement a heat pump in a heating/cooling system. It is developed a computational model of annual energy consumption for an air-to-water heat pump based on the degreeday method and the bin method implemented in a computer program. Also, from a case study is performed a comparative economical analysis of heating solutions for a building and are presented the energy and economic advantages of building heating solution with a water-to-water heat pump.

Title of the Paper: Hybrid Modeling of the Soil Water Regime with Physically based and Data Driven Approach


Authors: M. Cisty, J. Skalova, M. Pasztorova, J. Bezak

Pages: 134-141

Abstract: Global warming impacts the water cycle not only by changing regional precipitation and temperatures and their temporal variability, but consequently also by affecting soil moisture dynamics, which is a crucial condition of crop production. Adaptation strategies, such as improved water management or development of the more efficient irrigation systems, will be important tools in limiting the adverse effects of expected climate changes. The characteristics of a water regime for such decision making can be obtained by the mathematical modeling of the soil water regime. This modeling depends on the knowledge of the input data which are necessary for the numerical simulations. The aim of this paper is to contribute to solving this data acquisition task by using a data-driven methodology, namely support vector machines (SVMs). It is used for acquiring of the important inputs in such a modeling – namely ground water levels. The results of the paper confirm that in the soil moisture modeling, influence of the limited data availability which naturally exists in the context of the climate change impact studies, has an acceptable influence on the final precision and could be substituted by described data modelling approach. This paper emphasizes the usefulness of the proposed symbiosis of the data-driven and physically-based types of modeling.

Issue 4, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: Multidimensional Approach to Sustainable Interior Design Practice


Authors: Nur Ayalp

Pages: 143-151

Abstract: The present paper focuses over a large scale context (unit) excavated recently at the proto-historical site at Bâzdâna “La Cetate”, Dolj County, Romania. This context presents it self in an inextricable connection with the erection of the burnt brick wall which fortified the western part of the site, and was covered and “sealed” by the defensive structure. After the short description of the archaeological situation, characterized by a high stratigraphic clarity, and of the typological representative artefacts, follows an analysis referring to the human and zooarchaeological remains which were comprised in the unit at the foot of the brick wall. Dated towards the end of the 4th c. BC, the context constituted in a very short span of time (at most a few days) offers an excellent opportunity to refine the ceramics typology of that period. At the same time, the artefact and osteologic remains analysis contribute to outline of an enlightening image concerning the mentalities and behaviour of a revolute community. The conclusion must be that we are dealing with a foundation and consecration ceremony of the burnt brick fortification.

Title of the Paper: Impact of Some Environmental Variables with Dust on Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Performance: Review and Research Status


Authors: Zeki Ahmed Darwish, Hussein A Kazem, K. Sopian, M. A.Alghoul, Miqdam T. Chaichan

Pages: 152-159

Abstract: Due to the energy crisis and growing demand for energy as the conventional energy sources have approached depleting and can’t meet the world demand of energy. Fossil fuels have created plentiful environmental problems, such as global warming, acid rain, smog, water pollution... etc. Solar energy has the positive conditions as it is free from environmental pollutions, sustainable and requiring low maintenance. Solar energy can be collected to produce electricity by a variety of methods. Among these methods, photovoltaic PV systems have shown great success due to many reasons. Photovoltaic energy is preferred because it is clean, and secure. Therefore, a photovoltaic energy system will be one of the considerable sources of alternative energy for the current and future. PV systems performance depends on many factors, like geographical factors (latitude, longitude, and solar intensity), environmental ones (temperature, wind, humidity, pollution, dust, rain, etc.) and the type of PV used. Studies proved that dust has significant influences the performance of the PV system. The dust accumulation on the surface of solar module causes decreasing in its performance. Dust particles differ in phase, sort, chemical and physical properties depending on many environmental conditions. Air temperature and humidity in addition to wind speed play a significant role in defining dispersed dust and how it will accumulates on the cell. As a result one can determine cleaning procedure. The important of this study came due to the transfer of large scale PV technology to the desert area in Arab countries. This area is hot and dusty most of the time and dust represent the main barrier to PV utilization. This paper revises the research in studying the impact of dust on PV system performance.

Title of the Paper: People Dealing with Founding Rituals. A Case Study from South-Western Romania


Authors: Vlad Vintila Zirra, Valentin Dumitrascu

Pages: 160-169

Abstract: The present paper focuses over a large scale context (unit) excavated recently at the proto-historical site at Bâzdâna “La Cetate”, Dolj County, Romania. This context presents it self in an inextricable connection with the erection of the burnt brick wall which fortified the western part of the site, and was covered and “sealed” by the defensive structure. After the short description of the archaeological situation, characterized by a high stratigraphic clarity, and of the typological representative artefacts, follows an analysis referring to the human and zooarchaeological remains which were comprised in the unit at the foot of the brick wall. Dated towards the end of the 4th c. BC, the context constituted in a very short span of time (at most a few days) offers an excellent opportunity to refine the ceramics typology of that period. At the same time, the artefact and osteologic remains analysis contribute to outline of an enlightening image concerning the mentalities and behaviour of a revolute community. The conclusion must be that we are dealing with a foundation and consecration ceremony of the burnt brick fortification.

Title of the Paper: A Stochastic Approach for Ground Motion Simulation


Authors: I. Corbi

Pages: 170-177

Abstract: In the paper a statistical method is built up for simulating the propagation of the seismic signal over the territory. If the basic data relevant to some ground motions really occurred in a region, as i.e. the epicenter intensity and location, the site intensity, the magnitude value, the time duration, the occurrence period, the peak acceleration, etc., are known the probability density function of the seismic intensity at site can be solved by the statistical elaboration of the recorded data. After building the seismic intensity function the propagation of the signal over territory can be simulated for some expected earthquakes. A sample of the method was developed for an Italian area by statistically elaborating the data relevant to a series of historical earthquakes and has shown a good correspondence with the real seismic propagation in the area.

Title of the Paper: The Environmental and Economical Feasibility of an Organised Waste Collection Scheme as a part of Integrated Waste Management System


Authors: Jana Kivimägi, Enn Loigu

Pages: 178-187

Abstract: The current research assesses the economical feasibility of the reorganisation of municipal waste collection service as well as the impact of the organised waste collection scheme (OWCS) on source sorting and recovery of municipal waste. Municipal waste generation and recovery rates in the period of the implementation of the OWCS in Tallinn in 2005-2010 and the municipal waste collection fees were analysed. In addition, a separeate research was carried out in order to analyse the feasibility of Harju County Waste Management Centre. Tallinn City Government has recently implemented the advanced OWCS in one of the city districts with considerably positive results. In the municipalities encircling Tallinn, the administrative efficiency must be improved. The findings of the current study show that implementation of the organised waste collection scheme has contributed to source sorting and recycling/recovery of both recyclables and biodegradable wastes in Tallinn, and the reorganisation of the waste management in Harju County municipalities would improve both administrative efficiency and economical feasibility.

Issue 5, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: Gaussian Process-based Predictor of Electric Power Damage Caused by Typhoons in Japan Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm


Authors: Tomohiro Hachino, Hitoshi Takata, Seiji Fukushima, Yasutaka Igarashi

Pages: 189-196

Abstract: Electric power systems in Japan have suffered from natural disasters by typhoons repeatedly. The electric power supply is sometimes cut off in wide areas for a long time by typhoons, which brings an undesirable effect on society. To speedily restore the electric power sypply, it is necessary to predict the amount of electric power damage accurately for an approaching typhoon. This paper presents a method of predicting the amount of electric power damage caused by typhoons for the Amami archipelago in Japan using Gaussian process (GP) model. The relation between the typhoon weather information and the electric power damage is represented by the GP prior model and this model is trained by the separable least-squares (LS) approach combining the linear LS method with artificial bee colony algorithm. The predicted amount of damage is given by the predictive mean of the GP and its confidence measure is evaluated by the predictive variance of the GP. Simulation results based on actual data of typhoons that hit or came close to the Amami archipelago are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed predictor.

Title of the Paper: Design Optimal of Refrigeration Insulations


Authors: Ioan Sarbu, Emilian Stefan Valea, Gabriel Ostafe

Pages: 197-204

Abstract: Economic operation with minimal energy con-sumption and low costs of a cooled room or a refrigerant piping system depends largely on the quality and thickness of their insulation. The classical method of insulation rating for refrigeration systems is based on respect of the condition to prevent condensation of water vapours in the air on the surface of insulation or on limiting heat gain, but rarely leads to optimum in terms of a technical and economic criterion. In this paper are described some types of insulation for refrigeration applications and is developed a rating optimization model of these insulations with a high level of generality. It uses multiple dynamic optimization criteria simple or compound, which better reflects the economic and energy complex aspects, present and future. Based on this model were elaborated two computer programs implemented on PC microsystems. Numerical examples will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed optimization model. These show the good performance of the new model.

Title of the Paper: The Use of Geographic Information Systems for Presentation of Emergency Planning Zones


Authors: J. Rak, L. Jurikova, D. Sevcik, M. Adamek

Pages: 205-212

Abstract: This article describes the methods and use of information support in the field of the management of emergencies in the Czech Republic. Specifically, it deals with the use of specialized software and geographic information systems in the planning and preparation for assessing industrial disasters in relation to environmental risks. The introduction of this article is focused on the ways of determining emergency planning zones together with their graphic representation for the needs of prevention of damage to the environment, life and public health. Furthermore, it analyses issues from the perspective of the municipalities with extended powers as well as the regional authorities which are primarily responsible for population and environment protection in the Czech Republic. Supporting documentation for the determination of emergency zones and their explanation are based on the legislation that is valid in the Czech Republic. Nevertheless, this presentation can also serve as an example for the solution of the given issues in other countries. The results presented were obtained by means of the analysis and synthesis of current methods for the implementation of emergency planning. The method of analysis and synthesis was primarily used in the graphical part and the presentation. The data acquired was consequently evaluated. The desired output emerging from the comparison enables the determination of the key points for the whole process. Thus, the main objective of the research is the creation of a map of risks affecting the environment of the municipalities with extended powers, which would increase the preparedness of the authorities responsible for the implementation of safety measures in case of industrial disasters and other events threatening the environmental security

Title of the Paper: The Data Mining Ensemble Approach to River Flow Predictions


Authors: M. Cisty, J. Bezak

Pages: 213-220

Abstract: This paper deals with an application of data-driven ensemble methods while solving an important hydrology task - short-term flow predictions. Flood warnings several days in advance could provide civil protection authorities and the public with the necessary preparation time and could reduce the socio-economic impacts of flooding. The authors have focused on the application of an ensemble learning methodology for flow predictions, with the aim of refining the precision of the results of such modelling. Moreover, the authors demonstrate the usefulness of various steps in the data mining process, which are formalised in the so-called CRISP-DM process. They emphasize that all these steps are equally important in the modelling process and not merely in the final data-driven computations. The authors demonstrate selected methods for data pre-processing in the field of hydrology. A comparison of the ensemble modelling approach with a single model application reveals the advantage of the proposed ensemble approach. The paper describes river flow predictions in the Kysuca River watershed in Slovakia. The results from both approaches are evaluated with the help of the hydrological data which were observed in this region. An evaluation of the proposed methods shows their usefulness in river flow predictions.

Title of the Paper: The Use of Regression Analysis of Time Series for Forecasting Electricity Consumption of Consumers and the Proposal of an Algorithm for Calculating the Electricity Price


Authors: T. Kivipõld, J. Valtin

Pages: 221-228

Abstract: The liberalized electricity markets, power exchanges and new metering systems create a new environment where electricity sellers could offer new opportunities for electricity consumers. With utilization of smart-grids and smarter consumers there ought to be higher expectations. For example, a new pricing system could be developed that takes actual electricity production costs into account at the exact time they are done. If smarter consumers could participate in management of electricity grid, higher demand response would develop and this would help to smooth the load curve. Smoother load curve would consequently lead to reduction of overall costs of the system. The aim of this article was to first analyse dependence of load of a small group of residences in Estonia on temperature and to show how it is possible to forecast electricity consumption one day ahead with a simple regression analysis of time series method; secondly, to show how to correct the day-ahead forecast error when forecasting two hours ahead and to evaluate the accuracy of regression analysis of time series method; and thirdly, to propose an algorithm for calculating real-time price packages based on current market/power exchange rules. The results of this study show that regardless of a very large stochastic component, a relatively accurate load forecasting is possible when using the regression analysis of time series method, and that the proposed algorithm would be a step closer to creating real-time pricing systems.

Title of the Paper: Optimization of Electrochemical Oxidation of Glycerol for Glyceric Acid Production


Authors: Juan Carlos Beltrán-Prieto, Roman Slavík, Karel Kolomazník

Pages: 229-235

Abstract: The anodic oxidation of glycerol using platinum electrodes in alkaline solution was studied to optimize the production of glyceric acid using central composite design. The parameters under study were concentration of oxidant reagent, stirring speed and temperature of reaction. Selectivity to desired product and overall conversion of glycerol were considered as the response variables. In order to perform the electrochemical oxidation, cyclic voltammetry and multiple pulse amperometry techniques were used to study the effect of potential variation, the reaction order for glycerol and oxidant reagent, ad to perform the oxidation at controlled potential.

Issue 6, Volume 7, 2013

Title of the Paper: A Simulation of Air Quality in Association with Haze Events Occurred in East Asia during 10-15 January 2013


Authors: Soon-Ung Park, Jeong Hoon Cho

Pages: 237-252

Abstract: A prolonged heavy haze event that has caused for the Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) in Beijing to take emergency measures for the protection of the public health and the reduction of air pollution damages in China has been analyzed with the use of the Aerosol modeling System (AMS) to identify causes of this event. It is found that the heavy haze event is associated with high aerosols and water droplets concentrations. These high aerosol concentrations are mainly composed of anthropogenic aerosols, especially secondary inorganic aerosols formed by gas-to-particle conversion of gaseous pollutants in the eastern part of China whereas those in the northeastern parts of China are composed of the mixture of the anthropogenic aerosols and the Asian dust aerosol originated from the dust source regions of northern China and Mongolia. These high aerosol concentrations are found to be subsequently transported to the downwind regions of the Korean Peninsula and Japan causing a prolonged haze event there. It is also found that the Asian dust aerosol from northern China and Mongolia and the anthropogenic aerosols produced by chemical reactions of pollutants in eastern China can cause significantly adverse environmental impacts in the whole Asian region by increased atmospheric aerosol loadings that may cause respiration diseases and visibility reduction and by excess deposition of aerosols causing adverse impacts on terrestrial and marine eco-systems. High concentrations of gaseous pollutants of SO2 and NO2 can enhance poor air quality over the high emission regions, however, the O3 concentration tends to decrease over the high NOX emission region but to increase over the low NOX emission region thereby sometimes resulting in high O3 concentration in the downwind region of oceans.

Title of the Paper: The Role of Geographic Information Systems and Their Databases in the Process of Emergency Management in the Czech Republic


Authors: J. Rak, D. Ulcikova, L. Jurikova, D. Sevcik

Pages: 253-260

Abstract: The article describes possibilities of the use of geographic information systems (GIS) within the field of emergency management (population sheltering) in order to avoid consequences and impacts of an outbreak of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons, industrial accidents or other extensive extraordinary events (EE).This contribution is focused on data for GIS application. The data and databases are the most underlying issues within the field of the GIS usage in the process of planning and implementation of emergency management.The paper presents the possible ways of data integration, coming from different sources, by using the software tools and their application of planning, managing and supporting the processes in the area of emergency management.

Title of the Paper: Diurnal Variation of BTX Levels in Ambient Air of one Urban Site Located at the Southwest of Mexico City during Two Seasons in 2013


Authors: J. G. Cerón-Bretón, R. M. Cerón-Bretón, M. Rangel-Marrón, C. G. Carballo-Pat, G. X. Villarreal-Sánchez, A. Y. Uresti-Gómez

Pages: 261-271

Abstract: BTX (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and pxylene), criteria air pollutants (O3, NO2, NOx, NO, CO, and SO2) and meteorological parameters were measured in ambient air of an urban site located at the southwest of Mexico City during winter and spring 2013. A total of 82 samples were collected for BTX and analyzed by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization detection (GC-FID). Meteorological parameters were measured by a portable station. A marked diurnal variation was found for all measured BTX. During spring, the highest concentrations occurred during afternoon (15:00-16:30 h) for benzene and ethylbenzene, during the midday (12:00-13:30 h) for toluene and during the mornings (08:00-09:30 h) for p-xylene. During winter, higher concentrations were found in the afternoons for Benzene and Toluene, and during the mornings for ethylbenzene and p-xylene. Mean concentrations for benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and p-xylene were: 32.78, 13.58, 36.25 and 14.51 μg/m3, respectively. BTX abundance showed the following order during the whole study period: toluene > benzene > p-xylene > ethylbenzene. During spring BTX maximum concentrations were found when winds blowed from SSW and ENE. During winter time, in the mornings BTX levels were higher when winds blowed from E, in the midday, Toluene and p-xylene showed higher levels when wind blowed from WSW, benzene and ethylbenzene had higher concentrations when winds blowed from E and NNW, respectively. In the winter afternoons toluene showed higher levels when dominant winds blowed from SE and benzene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene showed higher levels when winds came from SSW. Local area sources and avenues with high vehicular traffic are located at these directions. These sources could contribute to the levels of BTX in this site.

Title of the Paper: Forests Monitoring for Environmental Protection


Authors: Maria-Roberta Gridan, Alina Corina Bălă, Floarea Maria Brebu

Pages: 272-276

Abstract: In recent decades Geographic Information Systems (GIS) had a rapid development in our country, practical applications impacting all areas of society, becoming an indispensable element in phenomena management strategy policies, simulations and analysis. GIS technology finds its applications in several areas from the forest sector, contributing to the development of growing stock mapping, Among the most important sectors of sylviculture, geographic systems have a very important applicability in forest management, forest cadastre, protected areas management, of forest ecosystems (habitats) mapping, trees and tree stands biometric measurements, torrent basins management, emergency situations management (forest fires), forest roads and wood mass exploitation, shelter-belt forests design and management. In this paper we study the applicability of a GIS in forest management, for Targu-Jiu Forest Range from Gorj County. Its practical result is an interactive system of spatial data.

Title of the Paper: System for Pollutant Monitoring in Hydric Pathways Associated to Estuarine Areas


Authors: Fabrício Ramos da Fonseca, João Pedro Lago, Cledson Akio Sakurai, Caio Fernando Fontana

Pages: 277-281

Abstract: The issues related to the environment in Brazil have been, in the past decades, treated with increasing relevance and narrowing necessaries to the inexorable importance required by the subject. Thus, the development of systems that glimpse the improvement of the efficiency in detection of pollution of the hydric pathways become a priority, given they make possible that the necessary interventions for the ending of pollutant agents’ actions take place immediately, lessening the impact cause to the environment. Research in aquatic environments such as estuaries, rivers, and coastal bays presents several challenges to the scientist [1]. This article concerns a study regarding the development of a system for the monitoring of hydric pathways associated to Baixada Santista's estuary region, a region to the south of São Paulo that, in the past decades, has suffered increasing degradation of its aquatic environments. It’s expected, with this study, to provide subsidies for the implantation of measurement and analyses’ systems of hydric variables in similar contexts.