International Journal of Energy and Environment

ISSN: 2308-1007
Volume 8, 2014

Notice: As of 2014 and for the forthcoming years, the publication frequency/periodicity of NAUN Journals is adapted to the 'continuously updated' model. What this means is that instead of being separated into issues, new papers will be added on a continuous basis, allowing a more regular flow and shorter publication times. The papers will appear in reverse order, therefore the most recent one will be on top.

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Volume 8, 2014

Title of the Paper: Performance Comparison of Self-Organizing Maps and k-means Clustering Techniques for Atmospheric Circulation Classification


Authors: Kostas Philippopoulos, Despina Deligiorgi, Georgios Kouroupetroglou

Pages: 171-180

Abstract: We present a comparative performance analysis between the patterns resulting from the Kohohen’s Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) and the k-means clustering approaches in the domain of atmospheric circulation type classification. The study utilizes mean daily sea level pressure (MSLP) data for the spring months of a 62-year period (1948 to 2009) on a grid with 2.5ox2.5o in the area of southeastern Europe. Both schemes provide realistic classifications, differentiating in the number of the resulting circulation patterns. The two methods are compared by examining the distribution of each SOM circulation type members (days) to every k-means type and by investigating the pressure field correspondence along with their monthly and cumulative frequencies of occurrence. High similarity is observed, especially for the patterns where atmospheric circulation is controlled from high-pressure barometric systems. The SOM method is found to be superior, due to its ability to generate a non-linear classification and produce a map where closely related atmospheric modes are described by neighboring neurons and positioned in adjacent locations.

Title of the Paper: Thermal Response of Multiple Pipes and Fluids Using COMSOL for Geothermal Energy System Application


Authors: Hafiz M K U Haq, Birgitta Martinkauppi, Erkki Hiltunen

Pages: 162-170

Abstract: A geothermal system is modeled using COMSOL. The purpose is to study and evaluate the thermal response of the pipes and the fluids. The model is designed for a low energy network. A part of this network is used to collect energy from a sediment layer under water body. This model depicts a heating system in the low energy shallow network which brings out the thermal response and helps implementing an efficient geothermal system application. This model executes in COMSOL on a special pipe dedicated as a heat collector for the heating system, to study the heat transfer within the pipes and the fluids used as a heat carrier. It also presents the thermal response of multiple fluids and compares the simulated and the measured data of the working fluid within the system. The temperature distribution and the heat flux along the length of the pipe are also taken into account in multiple pipes.

Title of the Paper: Air Pollutants Externalities Associated with the Life Cycle of Renewable Energy Sources Power Plants: A Comparative Appraisal


Authors: Dimitrios A. Georgakellos, Eleni A. Didaskalou

Pages: 154-161

Abstract: Preventing dangerous climate change is a strategic priority for almost countries. The aim of the present work is to estimate and compare the air pollutants externalities associated with the life cycle of renewable energy sources power plants. This is being realized by applying the NEEDS framework to quantify the external cost, as well as the basic principles of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The examined external cost has been calculated for five types of power plants (biomass-fired, hydro, photovoltaic, wind and geothermal ones). The results are given per impact type (human health, loss of biodiversity, crop yield, material damage and climate change) and show that this cost seems to be considerable for the biomass-fired and geothermal power plants, much lower for photovoltaic installations and practically insignificant for hydro and wind power plants. Regarding the impact categories, the biodiversity, the crop yield and the health of people are affected mostly by the biomass-fired and the geothermal power plants while the hydro, wind and photovoltaic installations have an effect on the climate. The general limitation of the external cost methodology applies to this work. Similarly, the data limitations as well as the assumptions related to the LCA framework may affect the results.

Title of the Paper: Visual Quality Preference: The Smyser Index Variables


Authors: Jon Bryan Burley, Rüya Yilmaz

Pages: 147-153

Abstract: For the past fifty years, planners, designers, scientists, citizens and government officials have been interested in predicting respondent’s perceptions concerning the environment. One of the breakthroughs in understanding respondent preference was the development of a twenty variable index that included ecological, functional, and cultural requirements, an index adapted from C. Smyser. Before that time, investigators primarily examined aesthetic variables. In our study, we examined this index in detail, separating the variables from the index into main effects and squared terms. Initially, we discovered that only a portion of the variables actually contribute to respondent preference, producing a new prediction equation which explains over 80% of North American and European respondent preference for landscapes. We then generated first order interaction terms as variables and produced lengthy equations that could explain about 98% of the variance. These highly predictive but longer equations are similar in length to equations that predict GNP.

Title of the Paper: Comparative Effects of Inorganic and Organic Compost Fertilization on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)


Authors: M. Reis, L. Coelho, J. Beltrão, I. Domingos, M. Moura

Pages: 137-146

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the agricultural use of a commercial compost as a soil organic amendment, its effect on weed occurrence and its residual fertilizer effect on soil. The tested crop was greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The plants were grown in randomized pots under three types of fertilization, as follows: no fertilization (control); an inorganic fertilizer (NK) and an organic commercial compost (Organical®, Terra Fertil, Portugal), prepared with urban sewage sludge, crop, garden and forest residues. The results showed a higher growth of lettuce fertilized with the compost than with the inorganic fertilizer. Lettuce growth enhanced monotonically with the increase of the compost concentration until 6.0 kg of compost m-2, but at this rate, yield (fresh weight of canopy) did not differ statistically from the dose of 3.0 kg of compost m-2. No increase of plant leaves micronutrient content was observed, except on the 6.0 kg compost m-2 treatment, where a low increase of zinc was determined. Weed number increased under lower doses of the compost, indicating that compost was not contaminated with weed seeds and, nevertheless its maturity, compost exhibited some control of weed germination. The residual fertilizer effect of the compost on a second lettuce crop was not statistically observed. Hence, according to the experimental results, it was suggested the amount of 3.0 kg compost m-2 (30 t ha-1) as the best application rate, due to the higher growth and lettuce yield, and the lower occurrence of weeds. On the other hand, as the possible destinations of urban sludge and other biosolids (sea, deposition in land fields and incineration) provoke environmental problems, their agricultural reuse as ”compost” is essential to avoid those problems.

Title of the Paper: Variance and Dispersed Expectations in Landscape Evaluation Criteria


Authors: Chunqing Liu, Jon Bryan Burley

Pages: 127-136

Abstract: Planners and designers are interested in understand respondents’ perceptions concerning the environment. In our study, we examined the criteria respondents indicated to assess landscape. We were interested in comprehending the simplicity/diversity of these responses. In our study we discovered that just a small sample of 71 respondents generated 65 criteria divided into 31 dimensions to evaluate environments. In other words, we found the criteria to evaluate environments to be complex and not uniform. These dimensions explained 80% of the variance in the respondents. We do not suggest that this list is definitive nor precisely represent the larger population. Rather, we suggest that such inconsistency means that agreement amongst respondents concerning how the landscape should be evaluated is dispersed. For planners and designers, this means that achieving agreement across numerous clients, stakeholders, and users requires successful implementation over an extensive programmatic list of expectations. In addition, we had the same respondent group intuitively assess two images of landscapes and then we calculated the variance inherent in the group towards the two images. We also had them employ a landscape visual quality index. We found the variance of the intuitive assessment between the two images to be quite similar around 8.7 to 8.9 for respondents, on a 40 point scale from minus 20 to plus 20. When applying the index the variance was around 4.4, on the same scale of minus 20 to plus 20. Thus, the index reduced the variance in the group. In past studies we found the index to be a good predictor of landscape preference; however, the index contained a different set of criteria than expressed by the respondent group in the first study, resulting in a devaluation of one image by about 5 points and an increase in the value of another image by 12 points. While the index has been a valuable predictor in measuring visual quality, it is clear that it is only a partial explanation in landscape assessment.

Title of the Paper: Characteristics and Transformations of Private Gardens of Nanjing in Modern Chinese History


Authors: Hui Wang, Jinze Leng, Qiu Ouyang

Pages: 118-126

Abstract: Researches on modern private gardens of Nanjing, based on different historical stages, could be divided into two parts, the one focusing on gardens during the late Qing Dynasty and the other focusing on gardens in the Republic of China period. This paper first elaborates on Xuyuan Garden and Zhanyuan Garden, two most representative gardens during the late Qing Dynasty and gives a brief introduction of another three “home gardens” built during the period of The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. Afterwards, by probing into the former residence of distinguished figures, the author tries to summarize the landscape design techniques and styles of private gardens during the era of the Republic of China. Despite all these efforts, the research itself is still in infancy with vast potential for further study. It is expected that this research could fill a vacancy in the study in this field.

Title of the Paper: Soil Profile Characteristics and Response of Bermuda Turfgrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) to the Combined Effects of Nitrogen / Potassium Fertilization, Irrigated with Different Wastewater Levels


Authors: R. Santos, M. Costa, P. Correia, J. Beltrao

Pages: 108-117

Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the combined effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on turfgrass and on the soil profile irrigated with different wastewater levels. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L) was selected because is the most common turfgrass used in many golf courses of the Mediterranean basin, especially grown in the fairways, roughs and tees, due to its tolerance to drought, high temperatures and damages. In order to express the wastewater irrigation amounts, it was used a crop factor Ki (non conventional crop factor under non standard conditions, adapted to the experimental irrigation design; dimensionless). The experimental work showed that for higher nitrogen amounts, the good visual appearance of Bermuda grass GVA was obtained in April and May for a Ki > 0.5 and in July and August for a Ki > 0.7 / 0.8. Greater amounts of nitrogen fertilizations presented higher soil nitrate concentrations. Soil nitrites content was always very low, once that they represent an transient from the ammonium to the nitrate stage of nitrogen. There were no significant differences among potassium treatments; however, for greater depths, potassium content was slightly higher, mainly for higher potassium fertilization. On the other hand, when there was no fertilization, the Ki value was larger, from Ki > 1.0 up to Ki > 1.4. Therefore, in spite of the higher Ki, it was shown that the nutrients of the irrigation wastewater were enough to be obtained a GVA of the Bermuda grass. In this way, often there is no need to increase the grass yield, once that production factors (such as the cuts frequency, water and nutrients), will enhance the expenses of the lawns maintenance and have a negative impact on the environment. Thus, in order to be obtain a good visual appearance of turfgrass, often there is no need to increase the grass yield, when wastewater irrigation is used, once that production factors (such as the cuts frequency, water and nutrients), will enhance the expenses of the lawns maintenance and contamination of the environment.

Title of the Paper: Research on Design Methods of Small-Sized Landscape Facilities in Urban Public Recreational Spaces


Authors: Ji Jianle, Song Li

Pages: 100-107

Abstract: In the design of urban public spaces, some smallsized landscape facilities play a huge and important role, such as flower beds, tree pools, and hedges and so on, which are usually used to bear the weight of plant and division scope of plant landscapes; seats, stools, etc. are provided to visitors’ rest and stay place; Settings of dustbins keep the place clean…In the urban public recreational space, these small-sized, operative or fixed facilities create a comfortable atmosphere like home, which enables the outdoor spaces to become an area for pleasant activities. By analyzing the functional composition and existing problems of these small-sized landscape facilities, come up with the specific design principles and design key points as references for design work.

Title of the Paper: Sustainable Traffic Management in a Central Business District: The Case of Almyros


Authors: Athanasios Galanis, Nikolaos Eliou

Pages: 92-99

Abstract: This paper presents the results of a research project that evaluates the ability to manage the transportation network in the central area of the city of Almyros, Greece. The proposed network will not only improve the road safety level of motorists and vulnerable road users but also will provide organized parking areas. The proposed traffic management actions are divided into short term and long term ones. The short term traffic management actions include the implementation of one way streets, change of traffic signs, the redesign of the sidewalks and the relocation of parking areas. The long term actions include the development of a complete motorist parking master plan.

Title of the Paper: Acceptance of Taiwanese International Tourism Night Market Websites


Authors: Rouh-Yun Yu, Chun-Der Chen, Hui-Chung Lo, Da-Chian Hu

Pages: 87-91

Abstract: International tourism Night market is the most popular scenic spot in Taiwan. It reflects the Taiwanese history, society, and contributes significantly to the Taiwan economy. To ensure the long-term business success, the technology-based website interactions are expected to be a key criterion. However, with the unique physical structure of night market and the various motives of visiting, the design of the website is challenging. This study attempts to study and compare the acceptance of the currently existing night market website, and in the meantime, fit an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) that integrates theory of planed behavior to investigate what determines users’ acceptance of night market websites. The proposed model was empirically tested using the structural equation modeling technique. The implications for practitioners and suggestions for future research are also addressed

Title of the Paper: Building of Slow-Moving System in Urban Landscape Planning Based on the Situation of China


Authors: M. Gu, R. Chen

Pages: 81-86

Abstract: Ever since the arrival of post-industrial era, cars have been widely used and popularized in an unexpected degree. In order to decrease the situation of traffic jam, many cities began to search for the construction method of slow-moving system, yet they are lacking of a systematic theoretical support. In this paper will from three aspects (slow-moving network, slow-moving landscape and slow-moving facilities) to research.

Title of the Paper: Effects of Air Temperature, Mean Radiant Temperature, and Air Velocity on the Globe and Operative Temperatures


Authors: Mohammad Kazkaz, Mousa Sattouf

Pages: 74-80

Abstract: In this paper is presented a theoretical comparison between the globe and operative temperature, to determine if it is possible to use the operative temperature instead of globe temperature for appraisal of the thermal comfort, for that matter each of the relation of globe temperature, the relation of operative temperature, the relation of the difference between operative and globe temperature as function of air velocity, men radiant temperature and air temperature are presented.

Title of the Paper: Research and Application of Urban Landscape Planning in Slow-Moving System-Based on the Case Study of Hong Kong


Authors: K. Gu, M. Gu

Pages: 69-73

Abstract: This paper in-depth analysis of one typical case which have succeeded to implement slow-moving system, performs a study on Hong Kong from three perspectives (Slow-moving network, Slow-moving facility and slow-moving facility), and refines the various means proposed thereof, thus laying basis for putting forward the construction approaches for slow-moving system in the future.

Title of the Paper: Survey, Analysis and Representation as Instrument for Control and Evaluation of the Transformations Resulting by Retrofitting in the Historic Cities. A Sustainable Energy Requalification through Monitoring of the Changes of the Architectural Heritage


Authors: Gerardo Maria Cennamo

Pages: 61-68

Abstract: Generally the Italian and Europe conurbation, in addition to the most important historical cities, is characterized by a large number of urban and suburban areas, nucleus and districts of cities that, although not are classified as historic center by urban planning often reveal a remarkable formal language, a synthesis of morphological and architectural archetypes and a good balance formal and functional which have developed in the succession of ages, usually inhabited and lived in our contemporary times. In the range of the no-solved dichotomy between conservation and innovation, the thematic of regeneration of the historical cities can be located, in Europe as in other parts of the world, in functional and energetical terms. In an age during the which the social practice evolution becomes more and more united with the daily utilization of technology, once used exclusively by elite circles –scientific and professional community- the historical city, harbinger of a cultural, sociologic, iconographic and mnemonic heritage, ancestrally rooted in the conscience of civilization, addresses the complex path of the research of an equilibrium between the own essence and the new modernity needs. From the middle of the last century, the physical and social deterioration that for various reasons cause has influenced many urban areas, has expanded to a new suffering that showed a further condition of inadequacy of the public sphere. Individual buildings or entire urban areas and pieces of city, have begun to deal with a new one (in terms of perception) and postponed requirement, established by the need to embark on a path towards a logic of sustainability in terms of functionality and energy.

Title of the Paper: Bed Friction Effects Influence in Shallow Turbulent Flows Using Video Technology


Authors: Jose I. Robles L., Arturo Palacio P., Alejandro Rodriguez V.

Pages: 55-60

Abstract: Some video techniques allows to obtain spatial and temporal flows information, in this special case, we using an video imaging method to study the effects of bed friction in shallow turbulent flows. These kinds of flows are those where the depth of flows is small compared with the horizontal length scale of the flows. Shallow shear flow of small depth is affected by friction and also by the fact that the large scale turbulence is confined to two dimensional motions. This large scale turbulence is responsible of important heat and mass exchange processes in rivers, lakes and oceans. We found in this work that only the turbulent flows in the far field are dependent of friction effects, approximately where the distance from injection of the jets is approximately xf ∙ Cf/2l > 0.5.

Title of the Paper: Bathymetric Measurements - Principles and Utility


Authors: Aurel Saracin, Alexandru Calin

Pages: 46-54

Abstract: At this time, when marine and river navigation intensifies, it is necessary detailed knowledge of the water bottom topography of the river navigable channel and marine coastal areas. Sonar sounding systems, multibeam ecosounders systems or those using interferometry, is investigating ways water bottom topography, to identify sedimentary deposits or to achieve the necessary studies hydrotechnical constructions. The importance of bathymetric measurements is noted in several projects implemented in Romania, presented in this paper.

Title of the Paper: A Human Body Waste Heat as Power Option for Wireless Transmitter for Building Sensors


Authors: M. Oplustil, M. Zalesak

Pages: 40-45

Abstract: This paper deals with an alternative energy source for autonomous wireless transmitters for building management. The electric energy used for supply of this device was harvested by human action or from human impact on the device. In the beginning part of this article was described principles of used energy conversion. The following part of this paper described system design of thermoelectric generator.

Title of the Paper: Dynamical Mechanism in Time Series of Particulate Matters


Authors: Deok Du Kang, Dong In Lee, Kyungsk Kim, Jae-Won Jung

Pages: 34-39

Abstract: We investigate the dynamical mechanism of PM10 and wind velocity in eight South Korean cities. We implement the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method to extract the overall tendency of the hourly variation. We find from three-daily and one-weekly intervals that Busan has the negative largest, while Donghae has the positive largest in the DCCA cross-correlation coefficient between PM10 and wind velocity. The cross-correlation is statistically significant for the hourly time series data less than two days, as a result of Asian dust events. We also ascertain whether a cross-correlation is statistically significant or not from random number surrogation and shuffled time series surrogation.

Title of the Paper: Management of Port Solid Waste Framework


Authors: Sergio L. Pereira, Carla M. M. Fontana, Caio F. Fontana, Cledson A. Sakurai

Pages: 27-33

Abstract: One of contemporary environmental issues refers to progressive and diverse generation of solid waste in urban areas or specific, and requires solutions because the traditional methods of treatment and disposal are becoming unviable over the years and, consequently, a significant contingent of these wastes presents final destination inappropriate. The diversity of solid waste generated as a result of human activities must have the appropriate allocation to specific legislation in force, such as landfill, incineration, among other procedures established by the competent bodies. Thus, also the waste generated in port activities or proceeding vessels require classification and segregation for proper disposal later. This article aims at presenting a methodology for the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of solid waste port and also application of automation technology that makes possible the implementation of the same.

Title of the Paper: Impact of Glycerol as Scavenger for Solar Hydrogen Production from Water


Authors: Chong Fai Kait, Ela Nurlaela, Binay K. Dutta

Pages: 19-26

Abstract: The photocatalytic activity of titania supported bimetallic Cu-Ni photocatalysts was assessed and optimized for hydrogen production from water under visible light illumination (12.2 klux intensity). Research parameters investigated include total metal loading and Cu:Ni mass composition of the photocatalysts. The best performing photocatalyst was 10 wt% Cu-Ni/TiO2 with Cu:Ni mass composition of 9:1, producing 6.1 mL of hydrogen over 2 hr reaction time. The impact of glycerol addition as hole-scavenger on the efficiency of solar hydrogen production from water was also investigated. Addition of 2.0 mL of glycerol to 8.0 mL of water enhanced the solar hydrogen production from 6.1 mL to 9.5 mL. If metal was not incorporated onto TiO2, the hydrogen production was minimal, 2.0 mL after 2 hr reaction. The absorption spectra of metal-incorporated photocatalysts were not only enhanced in the UV region, they were also shifted to the visible region. All band gaps of the metal-incorporated photocatalysts were reduced compared to P25 TiO2 (3.16 eV). The lowest band gap of 2.78 eV was displayed by 10 wt% Cu-Ni/TiO2 bimetallic photocatalyst. Photooxidation of glycerol produced glyceraldehyde, glycolic acid and oxalic acid as intermediates.

Title of the Paper: Ecological Trade - Premise for Sustainable Development


Authors: Adrian Ioana, Augustin Semenescu

Pages: 11-18

Abstract: This article explores the correlations environment – ecological trade – sustainable development. Centralized Ecological Management (CEM) concept is analyzed too. The ecological trade (qualitative and quantitative level of trade) can promote the concept of Sustainable Development (SD). The concept of Sustainable Development involves the implementation of theoretical and practical components for taking decisions in any situation which features a man-type medium, be it the environment, economic or social. The goals of sustainable development include the harmonization of the economic, social and environmental targets. This paper presents the main types of correlations: Ecological Trade – Sustainable Development – Economic Crisis. The Sustainable Development (SD) concept is also analyzed in direct correlation with the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) concept. The Corporations (qualitative and quantitative level of trade) can promote the concept of sustainable development. The goals of sustainable development include the harmonization of the economic, social and environmental targets. This paper presents the main research on the main types of correlations: Corporate Social Responsibility (including trade) – Sustainable Development – Economic Crisis.

Title of the Paper: MIMO Predictive Control of a Wind Turbine


Authors: J. Novak, P. Chalupa

Pages: 1-10

Abstract: In this work, linear model predictive control of a nonlinear wind-turbine model is studied. The wind turbine process is represented by a set of local linear models which are obtained by piecewise linearization of the nonlinear mathematical model at different wind speeds. In order to provide zero steady-state off-set in case of a disturbance or model/plant mismatch the model is augmented with disturbance model. Estimates of the states and wind are obtained with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The estimated wind is used for computation of weights of corresponding local models. Linear model parameters and estimated states are then used within predictive control strategy for computation of control signals. Due to different control demands in different operating regimes of the wind turbine the weighting matrices are also scheduled for different wind speeds. Simulations on the 5MW wind-turbine model in turbulent wind and comparison with baseline PI controller show that the wind-turbine system can be successfully controlled at different operating regions by this methodology.